HIST 1005- notes Quiz 1

HIST 1005- notes Quiz 1 - Ottoman Empire c 1300-1922 1550's...

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Ottoman Empire c. 1300-1922 1550’s – Golden Age 18 th century – decline 20 th century – collapse Aug 31 st ~622 Islam formed in Mecca, Saudi Arabia (next to the red sea) 1) 6 th Century Empires a. Eastern Roman Empire/Byzantine Empire i. 330. Founded by Constantine. Now Constantinople ii. Religions (1) Orthodox Christian; Jesus has 2 natures, God and man in one body (2) Nestorians; Christ is 2 people (3) Monophysites; 1 nature, 1 person b. Sasanian Empire/Persians i. Ruled Khurasan (modern Iran) ii. Transoxiania (region between Oxus and Jakovta Rivers) – NE Caspian Sea (1) Turks come from Transoxania (means between 2 rivers) (2) Important cities that flourished under the Sasanian Empire (a) Bukhara (b) Samarqand iii. Believed in Zorastrianism (1) Parallels Christianity (a) Believes in Messiah, 1 god , monotheistic religion (one god; Jew, Christian, Islam) (b) Eternal battle of good-evil (c) God is called Ahijra Mazda (d) Demon is Ahriman (e) Universal cosmic struggle between followers of the truth (Ahijra Mazda) and false (Ahriman) iv. Divides society into 4 classes that fall below the monarch (1) Military, Priest, Cultivators, Artisans (2) Cannot change status (3) Believe that if the classes change, the circle of equity is broken (4) People were not happy. Social inequality (a) Followed Christianity in the 6 th century c. Constant Wars between Sasanian and Eastern Roman Empire i. 628; Byzantine ruler, Heraclius, defeats Sasanian empire. (1) Major Sasanian decline in power ii. 632; collapse of Sasanian empire as result of Arab conquest d. No empire rule in Arabian Peninsula in 6 th -7 th century i. Ran on tribes (close blood/kinship communities; same ancestry_ ii. Tribes provide only security
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2) Geography of Arabia a. Fertile in southern Arabia, Yemen i. Yemen fed rest of Arabia b. Coastal lines had valleys; agricultural c. Medina was viewed as an oasis; one of many oasis’s however d. The rest was desert 3) People a. Not all nomads or bedouins (tent living, livestock) b. Common myth, Arabia before rise of Islam was a jahiliyya (Age of Ignorance) c. Religions before Islam i. Polytheism (belief in more than 1 god). Had 350-360 gods ii. 3 very important Gods mentioned in Koran (1) Allat, Manat, Al-‘Uzra (2) 3 daughters of Allah (main God, no idol) 4) Islam a. Spread very rapidly i. Caliph – religious authority. Founded in 754 in Baghdad by Abbasids Empire (1) Started as religion of the common people; no difference between rulers and subjects (2) Equality helped spread its existence ii. Located on a major trade route to Asia and Europe b. 10 th Century i. Rise of regional empires in Islamic lands ii. End of Arabic domination iii. Samanid Empire (1) Inherited land of Sasanian Empire (9 th and 10 th centuries) (2) Rise of Persian tradition and Influence (3) Collapse at turn of 10 th century (4) Followed by Turkish dynasties Qarakhanids, Great Seljuks, Seljuks of Rum (Anatolia) 1) Qarakhanids Dynasty 922-1211 a. converted Transoxania and Khurasan
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HIST 1005- notes Quiz 1 - Ottoman Empire c 1300-1922 1550's...

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