hemodialysis - Yasaman Zahedi Group 22 TA Grace Mao...

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Yasaman Zahedi Group 22 TA: Grace Mao Hemodialysis ID-21921777 Home Hemodialysis Acute and chronic kidney failure has affected individuals from day one. In Rome and during the Middle Ages the treatment was hot baths, sweating therapies, blood letting and enemas. Uremia, Greek for urine poisoning, and literally was when urine entered the blood, seemed helpless and would be fatal after several days or weeks. Today Hemodialysis is used to treat this condition and is used by millions. It is the only machine that can completely replace a human organ. Commencing as an expansion of osmosis and dialysis, it evolves to an invention that saves the lives of millions and myriad more to come. Thomas Graham was the first to expand the use of osmosis and dialysis to the medical field. It was first used in laboratories to separate dissolved substances or eliminate water from solutions through semipermeable membranes. In 1855 Adolf Fick published a quantitative description of the diffusion process and later Albert Einstein created the defined diffusion laws. John Abel was the first to perform dialysis. He anesthetized animals and filtered their blood outside the body through a semipermeable membrane. The issue arose of the blood clotting before the blood could be returned to the animal. The solution was using Hirudin, the anticoagulant element in the saliva of leeches, to prevent the blood from clotting before it returns to the animal. George Haas was the first to perform dialysis on humans. The first was believed to be a patient with kidney failure in 1924 and an additional six patients in 1928. All patients died due to their severe condition and the effectiveness of the treatment. He, like Abel, used Hirudin but discovered complications with it since it caused allergic reactions. Haas resulted in using Heparin, the universal coagulant in mammals, in dialysis and is still used today in hemodialysis devices. Willem Kolff had more success and used a rotating drum kidney in 1945 to treat a sixty- seven year old diagnosed with acute kidney failure. The treatment lasted a week and the patient
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was released with the kidney functioning normally. The drum kidney used membranous tubes made from cellophane and the blood-filled tubes were wrapped around a wooden drum that rotated through an electrolyte solution-dialysate. As the membranous tubes passed through the bath, the toxins would pass into a rinsing-liquid. Kolff then sent five of his rotating-drum kidneys to hospitals around the world and the blueprints to Peter Brent Brigham Hospital in Boston. The rotating-drum kidney became the Kolff-Brigham Kidney which was an improved stainless steel version. The Kolff-Brigham Kidney was put to the test in the Korean War by being taken to a Mobile Army Surgical Hospital. The new version had a significant increase in the average survival rate of patients. The hollow-fiber dialyzer later replaced the membranous tubes and flat membranes that
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BME 50A taught by Professor Botvinick during the Fall '08 term at UC Irvine.

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hemodialysis - Yasaman Zahedi Group 22 TA Grace Mao...

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