Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 9 Muscle and Muscle Tissue.docx

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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 9 Muscle and Muscle TissueOverview of Muscle TissueoNearly half of body’s massoCan transform chemical energy (ATP) into directed mechanical energy, which iscapable of exerting forceoTo investigate muscle, we look at:Types of muscle tissueCharacteristics of muscle tissueMuscle functionsoTypes of Muscle TissueTerminologies:Myo, mys,andsarcoare prefixes for muscleExample: sarcoplasm: muscle cell cytoplasmThree types of muscle tissue:SkeletalCardiacSmoothOnly skeletal smooth muscle cells are elongated and referred to as musclefibersSkeletal MuscleSkeletal muscle tissue is packaged into skeletal muscles: organs that areattached to bones and skinSkeletal muscle fibers are the longest of all muscle and have striations(stripes)Also called voluntary muscle: can be consciously controlledContract rapidly; tire easily; powerfulKey words for skeletal muscle: skeletal, striated, and voluntaryCardiac muscleCardiac muscle tissue is found only in heartMakes up bulk of heart wallsStriatedInvoluntary: cannot be controlled consciouslyContracts at steady rate due to heart’s own pacemaker, but nervoussystem can increaseKey words for cardiac muscle: cardiac, striated, and involuntarySmooth muscleSmooth muscle tissue: found in walls of hallow organsExamples: stomach, urinary bladder, and airwaysNot striatedInvoluntary: cannot be controlled consciouslyCan contract on its own without nervous system stimulationNervous system exerts influenceAll muscles share four main characteristics:Excitability (responsiveness): ability to receive and respond to stimuliContractability: ability to shorten forcibly when stimulatedExtensibility; ability to be stretchedElasticity: ability to recoil to resting length
oMuscle FunctionsFour important functions1. Produce movement: responsible for all locomotion and manipulationExample: walking, digesting, pumping blood2. Maintain posture and body position3. Stabilize joints3. Stabilize joints4. Generate heat as they contractAdditional functionsProtect organs, form valves, control pupil size, cause “goosebumps’Skeletal Muscle AnatomyoSkeletal muscle is an organ made up of different tissues with three features:nerve and blood supply, connective tissue sheaths, and attachmentsoNerve and Blood supplyEach muscle receives a nerve, artery, and veinsConsciously controlled skeletal muscle has nerves supplying every fiber tocontrol activityContracting muscle fibers require huge amounts of oxygen and nutrientsAlso need waste products removed quicklyoConnective Tissue SheathsEach skeletal muscle, as well as each muscle fiber, is covered in connectivetissueSupport cells and reinforce whole muscleSheaths from external to internal:Epimysium- dense irregular connective tissue surrounding entire muscle;may blend with fasciaPerimysium- fibrous connective tissue surrounding fascicles (groups ofmuscle fibers)Endomysium- fine areolar connective tissue surrounding each muscle fiber

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