hemodialysis outline

hemodialysis outline - This is just some suggested...

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This is just some suggested questions that you should be asking while writing your paper. Feel free to answer these or come up with different questions to answer. Part 1. ~2.5 pages (Summary) 1) History a) Why- was the device invented? Acute and chronic kidney failure, which can lead to death if untreated for several days or weeks, is an illness that is as old as humanity itself. In early Rome and later in the Middle Ages, treatments for uremia (Greek for urine poisoning, or literally, “urine in the blood”) included the use of hot baths, sweating therapies, blood letting and enemas. b) Any local or global issue that drove the development of this device (e.g. war, aids epidemic, poverty, anthrax, etc). Willem Kolff, of the Netherlands, was able to secure a success in Kampen in 1945 that remained elusive to Haas. Kolff used a rotating drum kidney to treat a 67-year-old patient that had been admitted to the hospital with acute kidney failure. The week-long treatment with the device, which Kolff had developed in the years before, allowed the patient to later be released with normal kidney function. She died at the age of 73 from an illness unrelated to the kidney failure. Kolff had unsuccessfully treated 16 previous patients in a series of experiments, but this success became the first major breakthrough in the treatment of patients with kidney disease and proved the usefulness of the concepts developed by Abel and Haas. The success was partially due to the technical improvements in the actual equipment used for the treatment. Kolff’s rotating drum kidney used membranous tubes made from a new material known as cellophane that was actually used in the packaging of food. During the treatment, the blood-filled tubes were wrapped around a wooden drum that rotated through an electrolyte solution known as “dialysate”. As the membranous tubes passed through the bath, the uremic toxins would pass into this rinsing-liquid using the abovementioned physical principles . c) What condition does it treat? d) Who and how many people are affected? symptoms, long term damage. e) When/Where- was the device invented/discovered. The first scientific descriptions of these procedures came from the Scottish chemist Thomas Graham, who became known as the “Father of Dialysis”. At first, osmosis and dialysis became popular as methods used in chemical laboratories that allowed the separation of dissolved substances or the removal of water from solutions through semipermeable membranes. Far ahead of his time, Graham indicated in his work the potential uses of these procedures in medicine. In 1855 the German physiologist Adolf Fick published a quantitative description of the diffusion process. But it was not until 50 years later that someone gave a solid basis for the process – and that someone was Albert Einstein. He derived those empirically defined diffusion laws thermodynamically accurately from the theory of Brownian molecular motion. With that, Einstein established a solid scientific basis. Still, Graham and Fick had discovered the underlying principle
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BME 50A taught by Professor Botvinick during the Fall '08 term at UC Irvine.

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hemodialysis outline - This is just some suggested...

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