This is just some suggested questions that you should be asking while writing your paper. Feel free to
answer these or come up with different questions to answer.
Part 1. ~2.5 pages (Summary)
Why- was the device invented? Acute and chronic kidney failure, which can lead to death if
untreated for several days or weeks, is an illness that is as old as humanity itself. In early Rome
and later in the Middle Ages, treatments for uremia (Greek for urine poisoning, or literally, “urine in
the blood”) included the use of hot baths, sweating therapies, blood letting and enemas.
Any local or global issue that drove the development of this device (e.g. war, aids epidemic,
poverty, anthrax, etc). Willem Kolff, of the Netherlands, was able to secure a success in Kampen in
1945 that remained elusive to Haas. Kolff used a rotating drum kidney to treat a 67-year-old patient
that had been admitted to the hospital with acute kidney failure. The week-long treatment with the
device, which Kolff had developed in the years before, allowed
the patient to later be released with normal kidney function. She died at the age of 73 from an
illness unrelated to the kidney failure. Kolff had unsuccessfully treated 16 previous patients in a
series of experiments, but this success became the first major breakthrough in the treatment of
patients with kidney disease and proved the usefulness of the concepts developed by Abel and
Haas. The success was partially due to the technical improvements in the actual equipment used
for the treatment. Kolff’s rotating drum kidney used membranous tubes made from a new material
known as cellophane that was actually used in the packaging of food. During the treatment, the
blood-filled tubes were wrapped around a wooden drum that rotated through an electrolyte solution
known as “dialysate”. As the membranous tubes passed through the bath, the uremic toxins would
pass into this rinsing-liquid using the abovementioned physical principles
What condition does it treat?
Who and how many people are affected? symptoms, long term damage.
When/Where- was the device invented/discovered. The first scientific descriptions of these
procedures came from the Scottish chemist Thomas Graham, who became known as the “Father
of Dialysis”. At first, osmosis and dialysis became popular as methods used in chemical
laboratories that allowed the separation of dissolved substances or the removal of water from
solutions through semipermeable membranes. Far ahead of his time, Graham indicated in his work
the potential uses of these procedures in medicine.
In 1855 the German physiologist Adolf Fick published a quantitative description of the diffusion
process. But it was not until 50 years later that someone gave a solid basis for the process – and
that someone was Albert Einstein. He derived those empirically defined diffusion laws
thermodynamically accurately from the theory of Brownian molecular motion. With that, Einstein
established a solid scientific basis. Still, Graham and Fick had discovered the underlying principle