Objective set 1 Biology 40C The Digestive System (Lecture notes): Pages 921 – 966. 1.Define the term ‘Digestion’. 2.Describe the general anatomy of the digestive tract. (Figure 24.1, page 922) 3.What are the two main groups of organs or regions within the digestive system? 4.Name the organs that make up the alimentary canal or GI tract. (in contact with the food) 5.Name the organs that make up the accessory structures of the digestive system. (not in contact with food) 6. Describe the four layers or tunics of the GI tract. (Figure 24.2, page 924) 7. Know the anatomy of each layer and what function it serves in digestion.
- innermost layer: epithelium - stratified squamous for regions with no absorption - simple columnar for regions with absorption - lamina propria - areola connective tissue - contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, scattered lymphatic modules, and most of the cells of MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) - muscularis mucosa -smooth muscle -create folds in mucosa -Submucosa -areola connective tissue -supports the mucosa -binds the mucosa to the muscularis -very vascular -lymphatic vessels -sub mucosal plexus (plexus of Meissner) -can also have glands and lymphatic tissue - Muscularis - muscle layer - type of muscle - skeletal muscle - mouth - throat - upper 1/3 of esophagus - external anal sphincter - smooth muscle - distal part of esophagus - stomach - small and large intestine - rectum - function - movement - mixing - network of nerves - myenteric plexus, which controls motility - two sheets of muscles - inner: circular layer - outer: longitudinal layer - Serosa - serous membrane - layer of epithelial cells - layer of tough fibrous connective tissue - peritoneum: below the diaphragm
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