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DETAILS Distribution, posting, or copying of this PDF is strictly prohibited without written permission of the National Academies Press. ( Request Permission) Unless otherwise indicated, all materials in this PDF are copyrighted by the National Academy of Sciences. Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Visit the National Academies Press at NAP.edu and login or register to get: Access to free PDF downloads of thousands of scientific reports 10% off the price of print titles Email or social media notifications of new titles related to your interests Special offers and discounts GET THIS BOOK FIND RELATED TITLES This PDF is available at SHARE CONTRIBUTORS SUGGESTED CITATION Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers (2001) 468 pages | 6 x 9 | HARDBACK ISBN 978-0-309-06836-9 | DOI 10.17226/9745 Barbara T. Bowman, M. Suzanne Donovan, and M. Susan Burns, Editors; Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy; Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; National Research Council National Research Council 2001. Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. .
Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 233 Assessment in Early Childhood Education 6 T HE USE OF TESTS AND ASSESSMENTS 1 as instruments of education policy and practice is growing. Throughout the school years, tests are used to make decisions about tracking, promotion or retention, placement, and graduation. Many teachers use tests or assessments to identify learning differences among students or to inform instructional planning. Widespread public concern to raise education standards has led states increasingly to use large-scale achievement tests as instruments of accountability (National Re- search Council, 1999a). Given their prevalence in the education system as a whole, it is not entirely surprising that the use of tests 1 Although the terms are not mutually exclusive, the word “test” tends to be used to refer to standardized instruments, formally administered, and designed to minimize all differences in the conditions of testing presented to test takers. There are both individually administered and group-administered standardized tests. The group-administered multiple-choice format is what people often have in mind when the term is used. Assessments embrace a wide array of formats (observations, performance measures, portfolios, essays). The term “assessment” is often used to communicate the intention to build a richer picture of the ways in which people think, learn, and work. They frequently are conducted over a longer period of time than group tests permit. Standardized tests focus on individual differences, answering the question “How does this individual compare with all others in the reference population?” Assessments reflect the interest of modern cognitive theory in the processes of learning and knowing in a given individual.
Eager to Learn: Educating Our Preschoolers Copyright National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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