This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.
This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: I. I N TRODUCT ION (Chapter 1) 1. OVERVIEW A. WHAT ARE MICROORGANISMS? (Figure 1.1 pg 4) a) Microbiology is the study of microbes: tiny living organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye. b) Most microbes consist of a single cell (unicellular). c) They include: a. Bacteria b. Fungi e.g. yeasts. c. Protozoa e.g. amoeba d. Microscopic algae e. Viruses living or non-living? B. WHY ARE THEY I MPORTANT TO US? a) Disease pathogens. Many microbes cause disease in humans and other animals. b) Food spoilage sour milk, bad meat etc are caused by microbial decay of the food. c) Food chain some aquatic microbes serve as food for small microscopic animals at the bottom of the food chain. d) Photosynthesis some microbes can capture energy from sunlight and store it in molecules that other organisms use as food. e) Decomposition microbes decompose dead organisms, waste materials from living organisms and even industrial wastes such as oil. f) Normal flora microbes found normally in the body, with beneficial roles e.g. bacteria in large intestine help to synthesize vitamins for us. Microbes in the digestive tracts of animals such as horses allow them to digest grass and to get nourishment from it. g) Commercial value industry, medicines (antibiotics, Botox, growth hormone), food (pickles, sauerkraut, yogurt), genetic engineering (e.g. crop plants that produce antibiotics or vaccines). C. WHERE DO WE FIND THEM? a) Almost everywhere: a. Bacteria found at depths of 4.2 km in Alaska and 5.2 km in Sweden. b. They have been found living at temperatures of 110 C (body temperature is 37 C). c. Bacteria have been found in the acid sulfur pools of Yellowstone National Park. d. Microbes have been found in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. 1 2. NAM I NG AND CLASSIFYING M ICROORGAN ISMS A. NOMENCLATURE a) Naming system established in 1735 by Carolus Linnaeus. b) Scientific names are in Latin c) Every organism has 2 names: a. GENUS (pl. genera) b. SPECIES i. For example: Escherichia coli or E. coli d) In 1978, Carl Woese came up with a classification system based on cellular organization: a. Bacteria b. Archae c. Eukarya: i. Prostists ii. Fungi iii. Plants iv. Animals B. TYPES OF M ICROORGANISMS 1. Bacteria a) Simple, single celled (unicellular)....
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOLOGY BIO230 taught by Professor Prof.? during the Spring '08 term at Borough of Manhattan Community College.
- Spring '08