Bio_study - Study sheet ch16 Plants are terrestrial organisms multicultural eukaryotes that make organic molecules by photosynthesis

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-1Study sheet ch16 Plants - are terrestrial organisms, multicultural eukaryotes that make organic molecules by photosynthesis, autotrophs-organism that makes its own food Algae are photosynthetic and some are mutlitcellular Plants are distinct from algae in that they have a set of terrestrial adaptations Terrestrial Adaptation of Plants - living on land poses some problems: mineral and water absorption, water conservation, reproduction on land, plants require structural parts to get these resources Root Systems-penetrates the soil and absorbs water and various ions and anchors the plant Shoot Systems- consists of the stem, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds, serves as the framework for position flower, leaves, seeds, fruits Most plants have mycorrhizae which is fungi that allows the plant to absorb water and minerals from the soil Leaves- main photosynthetic organs of plants, used stomata for gas exchange, vascular tissue for transporting materials, contains blade-flattened portion, petiole- slender stalk Lignin hardens cell walls Gamete- is formed when gametocytes divide from two sets to one set of chromosomes, haploid cells-1set of chromosomes when two games fuse= zygote a cell with two sets of chromos= diploid 2 sets In plants not algae zygote develops into embryo while still contained within female parent, helps protect sperm and embryo from dehydrating Origin of Plants from Green Algae- green algae, protists the ancestors of plants are aquatic and not well adapted to living on land, Charophyceans are a group of green algae closest to plants located close to water Plant Evolution - 4 major periods of evolution: 1. Origin of plants from their aquatic ancestors charophyceans, 2. Diversification of vascular plants, 3 the origin of the seed, 4 the emergence of flowering plants- angiosperms 1. Adaptation with help of gametangia which protected gametes and embryos allowed non vascular plants to evolve such as moss- contains 2 key terrestrial adaptations, waxy cuticle that helps prevent dehydration and retention of developing embryos, still needed water to reproduce
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 121 taught by Professor Ryan during the Spring '08 term at Salem State.

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Bio_study - Study sheet ch16 Plants are terrestrial organisms multicultural eukaryotes that make organic molecules by photosynthesis

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