Academic phrasebank.pdf - The Academic Phrasebank is a...

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The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers. It makes explicit the more common phraseological ‘nuts and bolts’ of academic writing. Academic Phrasebank A compendium of commonly used phrasal elements in academic English in PDF format 2014b edition Dr John Morley
1 | P a g e PDF Download version ©2014 The University of Manchester
2 | P a g e Preface The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers. It aims to provide the phraseological ‘nuts and bolts’ of academic writing organised according to the main sections of a research paper or dissertation. Other phrases are listed under the more general communicative functions of academic writing. The resource was designed primarily for academic and scientific writers who are non-native speakers of English. However, native speaker writers may still find much of the material helpful. In fact, recent data suggests that the majority of users are native speakers of English. The phrases, and the headings under which they are listed, can be used simply to assist you in thinking about the content and organisation of your own writing, or the phrases can be incorporated into your writing where this is appropriate. In most cases, a certain amount of creativity and adaptation will be necessary when a phrase is used. The Academic Phrasebank is not discipline specific. Nevertheless, it should be particularly useful for writers who need to report their empirical studies. The phrases are content neutral and generic in nature; in using them, therefore, you are not stealing other people's ideas and this does not constitute plagiarism. In the current PDF version, additional material, which is not phraseological, has been incorporated. These additional sections should be helpful to you as a writer.
3 | P a g e Contents Introduction: About Academic Phrasebank 4 - 5 Major Sections Introducing work 7 – 12 Referring to literature 13 - 18 Describing methods 19 - 22 Reporting results 23 - 26 Discussing findings 27 - 30 Writing conclusions 31 - 34 General Functions Being critical 36 - 38 Being cautious 39 - 41 Classifying and listing 42 - 43 Compare and contrast 44 - 45 Defining terms 46 - 47 Describing trends 48 Describing quantities 49 Explaining causality 50 - 51 Giving examples as support 52 - 53 Signalling transition 54 - 55 Writing about the past 56 - 57 Notes on Academic Writing Academic style 59 - 61 Commonly confused words 62 - 63 British and US spelling 64 Punctuation 65 Using articles 66 - 67 Sentence structure 68 - 69 Paragraph structure 70 Helpful tips for writers 71 - 72
4 | P a g e About Academic Phrasebank Theoretical Influences The Academic Phrasebank largely draws on an approach to analysing academic texts originally pioneered by John Swales in the 1980s. Utilising a genre analysis approach to identify rhetorical patterns in the introductions to research articles, Swales defined a ‘move’ as a section of text that serves a specific communicative function (Swales, 1981,1990). This unit of rhetorical analysis is used as one of the main organising sub-categories of the Academic Phrasebank. Swales not only identified

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