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Micro Topic 12 - TOPIC 12 MICROBIAL DISEASES OF THE URINARY...

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TOPIC 12. MICROBIAL DISEASES OF THE URINARY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS (CHAPTER 26) 1. INTRODUCTION a) The urinary system regulates the chemical composition of the blood and excretes cellular metabolic wastes. b) The reproductive systems produce gametes for reproduction and, in the female, support the growing embryo. c) Both systems share the same portal of entry for microbes that can cause disease. 2. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE URINARY SYSTEM (Figure 26.1 pg 742-743) a) The urinary system consists of two kidneys (composed of about 1 million nephrons), two ureters, a bladder and a urethra. b) Wastes called urine are collected from the blood as is passes through the kidneys. c) The urine passes through the ureters into the bladder from where it leaves the body via the urethra. d) Valves prevent urine from flowing back to the urinary bladder and kidneys. e) The flushing action of urine and the acidity of normal urine has some anti-microbial value. 3. STRUCURE AND FUNCTION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM (Figures 26.2 and 26.6 pg 742-743) a) The female reproductive system consists of two ovaries, two uterine tubes, the uterus, the cervix, the vagina, and the external genitals. b) The male reproductive system consists of two testes, ducts, accessory glands, and the penis; seminal fluid leaves the male body through the urethra. 4. NORMAL MICROBIOTA OF THE URINARY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS a) Normal urine is sterile (because of low pH and high salt and urea concentrations) but may be contaminated with microbes from the skin as it leaves the body. b) In the female, normal flora are influenced by sex hormones. c) The male urethra is normally sterile. I. DISEASES OF THE URINARY SYSTEM a) The urinary system usually contains few microbes but is subject to opportunistic infections. 1
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1. BACTERIAL DISEASES OF THE URINARY SYSTEM (UTIs) a) UTIs are among the most common infections seen in clinics. Nosocomial infections of the urinary system often occur following catheterization b) UTIs result in the following: a. Urethritis - inflammation of urethra. b. Cystitis - inflammation of urinary bladder. c. Ureteritis - inflammation of ureters d. Pyelonephritis - inflammation of the kidneys, can result from lower UTIs moving up the ureters or from bacterial infections such as leptospirosis. e. Prostatitis (in men) – inflammation of the prostate, often accompanying UTIs. c) UTIs are caused by: a. E. coli, which causes about 80% of these infections. b. Other species including Proteus, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. d) Diagnosis of UTIs is based on: a. Symptoms such as painful urination, cloudy urine etc.
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