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Unformatted text preview: Kendall's e-mail: [email protected] 1 L7: Government Institutions and Policy Actors Pol 1101 January 30, 2008 2 Outline Growth of government Structure of policymaking federalism separation of powers subgovernments/policy subsystems Public opinion and public policy Interest groups Policy stalemate and improving policy capacity 3 Growth of Government
Growth of nation and population Increased complexity of society Regulation of business Protection of social welfare Role of U.S. in the world Citizen demands 4 Government Institutions and Policy Capacity Complexity and fragmentation Federalism Separation of Powers Legislative Executive Judiciary State variation and policy capacity Informal Actors
Public opinion Interest groups Subgovernments
5 Federalism Evolution of federalism dual federalism (little integration of state and federal) cooperative federalism (collaboration between state and national governments) Continuing controversies, especially over federal dollars and state expectations State variation in policy capacity (money...) The pros and cons of devolution of authority to the states 6 Separation of Powers Power is shared among three branches legislature, executive, and judiciary Founders were concerned with possibility of government tyranny Has added to the complexity of governing Has added to the challenge of building consensus for policy action, especially between the legislature and executive 7 Separation of Powers: Policymakers Legislature lawmaking bicameral system committee system (division & specialization of labor) Executive law enforcing president/bureaucracy involved in policy development bureaucratic structure Judicial law interpreting reactive rather than proactive judicial review
8 Organizational Formats Legislative organizations (e.g., committees, individual members, party leadership) Executive Office of the President (EOP) executive departments (cabinet-level departments) subagencies independent executive agencies (e.g., EPA) independent regulatory commissions
9 Informal Actors: Public Opinion Public opinion is important in a democratic system is fleeting many people are inattentive to politics and policy can be voiced in numerous ways can have an impact, if people willing to take the time/effort can lead to interest group formation and activity
10 Informal Actors: Interest Groups
Important in politics, governance, and policymaking Lobbying all branches, both for/against policies money for elections use of media information (substantive and political) litigation direct contact w/policymakers
11 Informal Actors: Policy Subsystems Informal settings in which policies are made Have been called many different things subgovernments issue networks iron triangles 12 Iron Triangles
Bureaucratic Agency Budget Programs Policy Support POLICY
Congressional Committee/Sub Interest Group
13 Support Money Policy Stalemate and Capacity
Why does stalemate occur? Constitutional design and divided gov't Complex problems Public opinion and consensus Organized interests Ineffective political leadership Improving capacity
1) 2) 3) 4) Do states have sufficient capabilities in policy making to assume a greater role in the national government? How can increasing citizen participation foster policy innovation? Examples of successful participation? Would greater public involvement in policymaking pose risks to the quality of decision making? How do interest group campaign donations and the information they provide to officials affect the U.S. policy-making process?
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