English 3-20.docx - Parker Clark Mrs Lunsford 20 March 2020...

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Parker Clark Mrs. Lunsford 20 March 2020 AP Lang Notes & Score Argumentation o Shaping an Argument Basics o What is an argument? Persuasive communication that moves from a claim to a conclusion o What is the purpose of an argument? To persuade others to join your side of an issue To further understand other points of view and your own beliefs Classical Oration o Introduction: (exordium) introduces the reader to the subject under discussion; may be one paragraph or multiple Attention-getter: Piques interest or challenges reader’; where writer establishes ethos
o Narration: (narratio) provides factual information and background material on the subject at hand and/or explains why the subject needs to be addressed. The level of detail a writer uses depends on the audience’s knowledge of the subject; often appeals to pathos (stresses importance) o Confirmation: (conformatio) the major part of the text, includes development and proof needed to make the case Contains strongest appeal to logos o Refutation: (refutatio) addresses the counterargument (opposition)- anticipates arguments against major claim(s) Sometimes placed at the beginning of the argument, especially if counterargument(s) is/are well-known o Conclusion: (peroratio) one or several paragraphs the brings the essay to a satisfying close Often appeals to pathos, reminds the reader of ethos Does not just simply repeat the introduction Answers the question. “So what?” P. 117-119 in Conversations Book o Induction Collecting evidence and drawing an inference based on that evidence Supporting a main claim with a series of reasons
Arranging an argument from particulars to universals From details to big ideas P. 120-123 Ex: Exercise promotes weight loss Exercise lowers stress levels Exercise improves mood and outlook Claim: exercise contributes to better health Arguments that are inductive cannot be said to be right or wrong, but can be STRONG or WEAK, based on the validity and suficiency of support Particulars to Universals Ex: Sue would be a good president because: o

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