HIST 126 Notes on Merriman - HIST 126 Notes, Reading...

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HIST 126 Notes, Reading Assignments from MerrimanThe French Revolution—Chapter 12 (Week of 9/11)mounted first effective challenge to monarchial sovereignty on behalf of popularsovereigntyoinfluenced the evolution of European political lifeomost important issues addressedrights of the peoplerole of the state in societyvalues of democratic societynotions of “left” and “right” in political lifeconcept of “nation at arms”place of religion in modern society and politicsquestion of economic freedomsanctity of propertyOld Regime in Crisisdifficult economic conditions combined with growing popularity of Philosophes’ideas (stressed freedom in the face of entrenched economic and social privileges)issue of Louis XVI acting despoticallyoexiled Parlement of Paris in1771 and tried to establish new law courts;forced to relentpeople of means resented noble privilegesobourgeoisie didn’t make the revolution, but their dissatisfaction helpedcreated a litany of demands for reformresistance to reformonoble and professional groups (guilds, tax farmers) contested any plans toeliminate privilegesothe poorer nobility relied on privileges and resented the fact that provincialparlements had filled up with new nobles who had purchased officeseconomic hardshiporising prices and rents of the1770s and1780soseries of bad harvestsogrowing population put more pressure on scarce resourcesshort term cause of French Revolution—financial crisis of the1780so¾-s of state expenses went to maintaining the military and paying offdebts accumulated during the War of Austrian Succession and the SevenYears’ Warofinancial crisis of the monarchy was closely tied to the very nature ofits fiscal systemno central bank; had to depend on private interestscollected taxes inefficientlyoIn1787, Assembly of Notables would not endorse the crown’s tax reformproposals because such a move would put theprivilege based nature ofFrench society at stake
First Stages of the RevolutionKing was in a difficult position following failure to sway Assembly of Notablesoneeded to reduce privileges of the noblesto solve the financial crisis,butto do sowithout their approvalwould lead toaccusations oftyrannyoon the other hand,capitulating to the demandsof the privileged classesin return for new taxeswould compromisethe king’sabsolute authorityand suggest his word wassubject to the approval ofthe nation, or at leastthe nobilityin response to the refuse to pass taxes, Louis XVI exiled the members of theParlement of Parisorevolt of the nobility, marking the start of the revolution, occurred as aresult of the monarchy’s attempt to force taxes on noblesoLouis XVI recalled the Parlement of Paris in Nov1787, but ordered newloan edicts to be registered without giving Parlement a chance to voice itsopinionwith this move,Louis XVI crossed the line between absolutism

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Term
Fall
Professor
Kearns
Tags
French Revolution, Louis XVI, Louis XVI of France

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