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Chapter 9 Notes - Chapter 9 Notes Developmental Psychology...

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Chapter 9 Notes! Developmental Psychology The study of age-related changes in behavior and mental processes from conception to death. TOPICS PRENATAL NEWBORN THE INFANT AND GROWING CHILD ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD AND OLD AGE THE LIFE CYCLE SUCCESS: At age 4 success is . . not peeing in your pants. At age 12 success is . having friends. At age 16 success is . having a drivers license. At age 35 success is . having money. At age 50 success is . having money. At age 70 success is . having a drivers license. At age 75 success is . having friends. At age 80 success is . not peeing in your pants. Theoretical Issues Nature vs. Nurture Continuity vs. Stages Stability vs. Change Nature Vs Nurture Nature – A general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception. Nurture – A general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived. Continuity vs Stages Continuity – development is continuous, with new abilities, skills, and knowledge gradually added at a relatively uniform pace. Suggest that adult thinking and intelligence differ quantitatively form a child’s Stages – development occurs at different rates, alternating between periods of little change and periods of abrupt, rapid change.
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Stability vs Changes Stability – maintaining personal characteristics as you mature. Change – personal characteristics change as you mature. Research Methods: Two Basic Approaches Cross-Sectional Method Research design that measures individuals of various ages at one point in time and gives information about age differences. Longitudinal Research Research done that measures a single individual or group of individuals over an extended period of time and gives information about age changes. Advantages/Disadvantages Cross-Sectional Advantages Gives information about age differences Quick Less Expensive Typically larger sample Disadvantages Cohort effects Restricted generalizability (measures behaviors at only one point in time) Advantages/Disadvantages Longitudinal Advantages Gives information about age changes Increased reliability More in-depth information per participant Disadvantages More expensive Time consuming Restricted gneralizability (typically smaller sample and dropouts over time)
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Physical Development Prenatal Germinal Period Embryonic Period Fetal Period Early Childhood Brain Development Motor Development Sensory and Perceptual Development Adolescence and Adulthood Adolescence Middle Age Late Adulthood Conditions that Endanger a Child Malnutrition – low birth weight, malformations, less-developed brain, greater vulnerability to disease.
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