General Psych - Chapter 1[1].7 - Winter Park

General Psych - Chapter 1[1].7 - Winter Park - Welcome to...

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Unformatted text preview: Welcome to General Psychology PSY 1012 CRN 21183 Winter Park Campus Professor John Antony Philcox, M.A., CCJAP Introduction of Syllabus Class Agreements The Basic Principle of Impression Formation How young do you think I am? Am I married? How many children do I have? Do I have any grandchildren? What kind of car do I drive? What are my hobbies or favorite leisure time activities? Do I play any musical instruments? Am I an "outdoorsy" kind of person? What does the CCJAP stand for? Where did I serve the balance of my career? Perceptions of the Professor Barsch Learning Style Visual Learning Style Auditory Learning Style Kinesthetic Learning Style Visual Clues Needs to see it to know it Strong sense of color May have artistic ability Difficulty with spoken directions May be easily distracted by sounds Trouble following lectures Misinterpretation of spoken words Visual Learning Tips Use of graphics to reinforce learning: films, slides, illustrations, diagrams, doodles. Color coding to organize notes and possessions Written documents Use of flow charts and diagrams for note taking Auditory Clues Prefers to get information by listening: needs to hear it or speak it to know it. Written directions more difficult to follow than spoken directions. Prefers listening to reading and writing Inability to read body language and facial expressions. Auditory Learning Tips Use of tapes for reading and for class lecture notes Learning by interviewing or by participating in discussions Works well in study groups Having test questions or directions read aloud or put on tape. Kinesthetic Clues Prefers handson learning Can assemble parts without reading directions Difficulty sitting still Learns better when physical activity is involved May be very well coordinated and have athletic ability Kinesthetic Learning Tips Experimental learning (making models, doing lab work, and role playing). Frequent breaks in study periods; tracing letters and words to learn spelling and remember facts Use of computer to reinforce learning through sense of touch. Usually involves some kind of movement while learning i.e., tapping a pencil, shaking a foot, holding something. Why Take Notes Involves more senses Sight, hearing, and tactile Requires processing the data Active learning Helps to maintain attention Gives something to review Involved neurologically in the process Keeps instructor happy CHAPTER ONE Who do you think of when you hear the term "psychologist?" What do you think a psychologist does? Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Who? Biopsychology/Neuroscience Clinical Psychology Cognitive Psychology Counseling Psychology Developmental Psychology Educational and School Psychology Experimental Psychology Gender and/or Cultural Psychology Industrial/Organizational Psychology Social Psychology Exercise Thinking about your interest in Psychology What? Define Psychology Scientific Study of Behavior and Mental Processes. True or False Myths and Misconceptions Actions speak louder than words True When students watched videotapes of people whose selfdescriptions conflicted with their actual behavior on characteristics such as "shy" and "friendly," their judgments were influenced much more strongly by what the people did than what they said. Beauty is only skin deep False. Attractive people turn out to have higher selfesteem and to be better treated than less attractive people. Cry and you cry alone True. Students who had talked on the phone to depressed people are not interested in spending time with these people, compared to students who had talked to nondepressed people. Marry in haste, repent at leisure True. People who marry young or after just a short courtship are more likely to seek a divorce later on, in comparison to those who marry after age 20 or after a long courtship. Familiarity breeds contempt False. In a variety of studies, people have indicated their preference for items (such as words, symbols, and photos) that they have seen frequently. Opposites attract False. Research shows that proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity are the tree most important factors in interpersonal attraction. Misery loves company True. Depressed people are more likely to seek emotional support from persons who are also depressed. Spare the rod, spoil the child False. Children who are severely punished when young are more likely to develop psychological problems in adulthood than are those whose parents "spared the rod." The squeaky wheel gets the grease. True. When management students were asked to decide the salary levels of various job candidates, they awarded higher salaries to the applicants who had requested higher salaries. Birds of a feather flock together. True. Similarity is the single, best predictor of longterm relationships (both friendships and love). When? 1879 Father of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt Established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany. Primarily interested in studying the conscious experience how we form sensations, images, and feelings. Wrote most important book in the history of psychology "Principles of Physiological Psychology." Historical Roots of Psychology Origins in Philosophy Greek Philosopher Socrates (470399 BCE) and his followers wrote extensively about human nature Hippocrates (460377 BCE) "father of modern medicine" referred to the human brain as an "interpreter of consciousness." Roman physician Galen (130200 CE) theorized that every individual is born with one of four personality types or "temperaments." Early Pioneers William James (1842 1910) Functionalist studied how the mind functions to adapt humans Mary Whiton Calkins (1863 1930) Association and other animals to their environment. Published important text "Principles of Psychology" Conducted one of the first studies of dreams First female president of the American Psychological Kenneth Clark (1914 1975) First African American president of the American Psychological Association. Conducted research on prejudice that was cited in 1964 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Sigmund Freud (1856 1939) Formulated Psychoanalysis Theory of personality, a form of psychotherapy, and one of the most influential schools of thought in modern history. Structure of the mind Three major parts id (pleasure principle), ego (reality principle), & superego (moral principle) Ivan Pavlov (1849 1936) Initiated the study of Classical Conditioning with a response until it elicits that response. Type of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired Pavlov's Dog Unconditional response vs. conditional response. Salivation unconditional response. (Theory developed in the 1920s) Most influential figure in the study of Jean Piaget Cognitive Development in Children Four Stages Sensorimotor (0 2 years) Preoperational (2 6 years) Concrete operational (7 12 years) Formal operational (12 years adult) Behaviorist B. F. Skinner (1904 1990) changes it in some way Operant Conditioning Behavior operates on the environment and Subjects of Skinner's research were usually animals Reinforcement All of our behavior is governed to some degree by reinforcement. Believed that using punishment as a consequence is relatively ineffective in the long run and that the primary way to develop new behavior is to positively reinforce desired behavior. John B. Watson (1878 1958) Founded the school of behaviorism, which advocated that observable stimuli and responses should be the focus of psychology not mental processes. Carl Rogers (1902 1987) Abraham Maslow (1908 1970) Central figures in the development of humanism all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and move toward self actualization. Stressed free will, selfactualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth seeking. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic: focuses on unconscious processess and unresolved past conflicts (Freud was the founder). Behavioristic: emphasizes objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior (Watson, Pavlov and Skinner were leaders). Humanistic: emphasizes free will, selfactualization, and a positive human nature (Rogers and Maslow were key figures). Cognitive: focuses on thought, perception and information processing. Neuroscience/Biopsychology: emphasizes genetics and biological processes in the nervous system. Evolutionary: emphasizes natural selection, adaptation, and evolution. Sociocultural: emphasizes social interaction and cultural determinants. One Unifying Theme of Modern Psychology Biopsychosocial Model: an integrative model combining the seven major perspectives. Where? Until recent times psychology has been focused on Western cultures. But with the increased attention to cultural psychology, we now have more interest and research being conducted on other cultures. Why? The Basic Goals of Psychology Describe Explain Predict Change Behavior and Mental Processes 1. 2. 3. 4. Goal = Explain. This research answers the question of why people become obese. Goal = Predict. Psychologists' statement attempts to guess what will happen in the future. Goal = Change. Statement suggests attempts to change behavior leading to reduced pregnancy rates. Goal = Describe. Survey results simply describe what exists in the world. The Science of Psychology Psychological research can be either: Basic: conducted to advance scientific knowledge, or Applied: conducted to solve practical problems. The Scientific Method Step 1 Literature Review Step 2 Develop a Testable Hypothesis Step 3 Design the Study and Collect the Data Step 4 Analyze the Data and Accept or Reject the Hypothesis Step 5 Publish, Replicate, and Seek Scientific Review Step 6 Build a Theory The Scientific Method Hypothesis A specific prediction about how one variable is related to another. Exercise Defining a Hypothesis Name European Cities How? Four Major Research Methods Experimental Research Descriptive Research Biological Research Correlational Research Experimental Research A search for cause and effect Carefully controlled scientific procedure that determines whether variables manipulated by the experimenter have a causal effect on other variables. Two Critical components: Independent and Dependent Variables and Experimental versus Control Groups. Scientific Methods Research Designs Independent Variable Dependent Variable Any variable that the researcher manipulates in an experiment. The proposed cause of change in the dependent variable. A variable that is being measured in an experiment. Proposed to be affected by the independent variable. Scientific Methods Research Designs Experimental Group Control Group Any condition of an experiment in which participants are exposed to an independent variable. The condition of an experiment in which participants are not exposed to the independent variable. The procedure of assigning subjects to groups. Random Assignment Scientific Methods Research Designs A research method in which the investigator varies some factors, keeps others constant, and measures the effects on randomly assigned subjects. Research Application Understanding Random Assignment The InClass Basketball Team experimental and control group Descriptive Research Naturalistic Observation Observation and recording of behavior in the participant's natural state or habitat. Surveys Research technique that assesses behaviors and attitudes of a sample or population usually by asking or selfreporting. Case Studies An indepth study of a single research participant, i.e. Phineas Gage case. Exercise A Survey Correlational Research Any scientific study in which the researcher observes or measures (without direct manipulation) two or more variables to find the relationships between them. Scientific Methods Research Designs Explaining a Correlation Start with 3 variables (X, Y, & Z) where X and Y are correlated: X may cause Y Y may cause X Z may cause X and Y Correlations indicate relationship patterns, not causes Scientific Methods Correlation Research Design A statistical measure of how closely two variables are associated. A correlation can range from 1.0 to +1.0. Biological Research Scientifically studies the brain and other parts of the nervous system. Ethical Guidelines Key Issues for human participants in research: Informed consent and voluntary participation. Restricted use of deception and debriefing. Maintaining confidentiality. Student participants must be given alternatives. Ethics in Psychological Research Ethics committees - groups of psychologists or other professionals who look over each proposed research study and judge it according to its safety and consideration for the participants in the study. Common ethical guidelines: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Rights and well-being of participants must be weighed against the study's value to science. Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participation. Deception must be justified. Participants may withdraw from the study at any time. Participants must be protected from risks or told explicitly of risks. Investigator must debrief participants, telling the true nature of the study and expectations of results. Data must remain confidential. Menu Ethics in Psychological Research Animal research answers questions we could never do with human research. Focus is on avoiding exposing them to unnecessary pain or suffering. Animals are used in approximately 7% of psychological studies. These rabbits are part of a drugtesting study. Their bodies are enclosed in the metal cases to prevent movement during the test. What steps might the researchers using these animals take to treat the animals ethically? Menu ...
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