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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER TWO Exercise One Draw - a - Brain Group assignments Draw a brain and label the major functions. Cerebral Cortex, Brain Stem, Cerebellum, Four Lobes (frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, & occipital lobe), Right and Left Hemispheres. The Brain Regions of the Brain The Brain Regions of the Brain The Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex The Brain Regions of the Brain The Brainstem
Medulla Vital involuntary functions Pons Reticular formation Cerebellum Sleep and arousal Sleep, arousal, attention Motor coordination The Human Brain The adult human brain weighs about three pounds Its nerve cells are connected by one million miles of nerve fibers The Human Brain We have two cerebral hemispheres, left and right, connected by bundles of nerve fibers, the largest known as the corpus callosum The corpus callosum has about 250 million nerve fibers Exercise
Right brain or left brain questionnaire Brain Hemisphericity and Academic Majors A Correlational Study
College Student Journal June 2001 Study investigated the correlation between student's choice of academic majors and their Brain Hemisphere Subjects were 429 graduate and undergraduate students in a large university in Southern U. S. Results of the Study Strong correlation between academic majors and brain dominance Art/literature majors tend to be right brained. Business/commerce/science and engineering tend to be left brained Education/nursing/communication and law tend to be right brained. Research has demonstrated importance of understanding brain behavior as it relates to learning styles and personality traits. Research has demonstrated that left hemisphere operates in a linear, sequential manner with logical, analytical, propositional thought. Right hemisphere operates in nonlinear simultaneous fashion and deals with non verbal information as well as dreams and fantasy. Additional Thoughts Left hemisphere specializes in language whereas right hemisphere specializes in visuospatial and oppositional thought. Left hemisphere is highly analytic, verbal, linear and logical learners whereas right hemisphere is highly global, visual, relational and intuitive. The brain has enough electrical energy to light a 25watt bulb. The Human Brain Keeps Rewiring Itself Eventually the adult brain becomes a complex thicket of particular connections. Estimates are that it takes a quadrillion connections--that's 1,000 trillion--to wire an adult brain. --The Scientist In The Crib, 181 A Piece of Your Brain the Size of a Grain of Sand One hundred thousand neurons Two million axons One billion synapses If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn't.
--Emerson M. Pugh The Body's Communication Networks
The Nervous System Central Nervous System(CNS) The network of nerves contained within the brain and spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System(PNS) The PNS comprises the somatic and autonomic nervous systems The Neuron Neurons Sensory Neurons Nerve cells that serve as the building blocks of the nervous system Neurons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, and internal organs to the CNS Neurons that transmit commands from the CNS to the muscles, glands, and organs Motor Neurons Exercise Three Neuronal Transmission Groups Diagram and label a neuron and include the transmission path from one neuron onto the next. Include Dendrites, Soma, Axon, Axon Terminal Button, Synapse, Myelin Sheath, Neurotransmitters. The Neuron
The Structure of a Neuron The Neuron
The Neuron in Action Action Potential Threshold An electrical impulse that surges along an axon, caused by an influx of positive ions in the neuron The level of stimulation needed to trigger an action potential Chemical messengers that transmit information by crossing the synapse from one neuron to another Neurotransmitters The Neuron
How Neurons Communicate Impulse releases neurotransmitter from axon terminals. Neurotransmitter enters synaptic gap. Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on the receiving neuron. The Neuron
Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine (ACh) Dopamine Endorphins Norepinephrine Serotonin Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) Brain Cells (Neurons) A fruit fly has 100,000 neurons A mouse has five million neurons A monkey has ten billion neurons An adult human being has about 100 billion neurons Brain Cells (Neurons)
100 billion nerve cells, or neurons, is about the same number as the number of stars in the Milky Way. 100 Billion Active Cells
And each can grow up to 20,000 branches to store information like branches on a tree.
Dendrites Neuron Axon Nearly all active cells are in place at birth
But we can all go on growing new dendrites throughout life. Those interconnections are the key to learning. At birth, the neurons in the cerebral cortex at the front of a baby's brain are smaller and have many fewer branches than they will have just a few weeks later. At three months of age, a baby's dendritic forests are already branching and growing based on the child's genetic program and on just the first twelve weeks of his/her life experience. At twenty-four months, a child's frontal cortex is a true enchanted thicket of neural trees with bushy dendrites and billions of shimmering spines. Learning is nearly effortless, but self-control awaits the sculpting of permanent inhibitory pathways within this overcrowded mass. At six years of age, a child's neural forests already show some of the pruning that comes with age, experience and physical maturation. Nevertheless, the dendrites are longer, branchier, and more spine-studded than in a two-year-old, and this expansion can continue throughout life with appropriate stimulation. Diamond, Marian and Hopson, Janet Magic Trees of the Mind, 1998 Review History of Psychology including the early Pioneers. Goals of Psychology Branches of Psychology Four major research methods Scientific methods used in conducting research Research Designs Nervous System Parts of the brain including the different lobes and their functions Neurons Right and left brain hemispheres and their respective functions Methods used to study the brain ...
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- Spring '08