Definition of MemoryAn Internal Record or Representation of Some Prior Event or Experience
Definition of Constructive ProcessOrganizing and shaping of information during processing, storage, and retrieval of memories.Memory is a Constructive Process
ExerciseThree to Five volunteers to leave the classroom. Retelling a story. Keep track of the errors made.What does this exercise reveal about the operation of the memory system.
Four Models of MemoryInformation Processing ModelParallel Distributed Processing ModelLevels of Processing ApproachTraditional Three-Stage Memory Model
Information Processing ApproachMemory is a process, analogous to a computer, where information goes through three basic processes – encoding, storage, and retrieval.
Encoding – Translating information into neural codes (language) – i.e. sensory (sound/visual image) into language.Storage – Retaining neurally coded information over time.Retrieval – Recovering information from memory storage.
Levels of Processing ApproachMemory depends on the degree or depth of mental processing occurring when material is initially encountered. Shallow processing leads to little memory, whereas deeper processing adds meaning and greater memory.
Traditional Three-Stage Memory ModelMemory requires three different storage boxes or stages to hold and process information for various lengths of time. Sensory memory holds information for exceedingly short intervals, short-term memory retains information for approximately 30 seconds or less (unless renewed), and long-term memory provides relatively permanent storage.
Sensory MemoryFirst Stage of MemoryWhat we see, hear, touch, taste, and smell first enters our sensory memory.