Theology Exam 2 Study Guide

Theology Exam 2 Study Guide - Theology Exam 2.Study Guide...

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Theology Exam 2…Study Guide Definitions: Constantine The first Christian emperor of Rome. He ended the persecution of Christians and paved the way for the establishment of Christianity as the sole legal religion in the Roman Empire. He established the practice of calling ecumenical councils to resolve urgent issues affecting the whole church, as his reign marked the beginning of a huge expansion in the Christian church. John Wycliff A reformer of the late medieval period. He preached against abuses in the church and challenged some of the church’s doctrines. He also advocated the translation of the Bible into English, the language of the people. Great Schism Referring to a period in the Late Middle Ages when the Roman Catholic Church had two and, for a brief period, three reigning popes at the same time. Civil leaders joined forces behind the one whom they considered to be the true pope, producing a schism (split) in the church. Abbot The spiritual leader who governs an organized community of monks. Cathars Meaning “pure ones”, this anticlerical, Christian reform movement emerged in the twelfth century A.D., teaching that the world and the flesh were the world and the flesh were the work of an evil god. Thus they practiced severe asceticism, such as cutting back food, living celibate lives, etc. Catharism was widespread in southern France, where they came to be known as the Albigensians. Alienation of Property During the early medieval period, the practice of deeding church goods as the private inheritance of bishops’ or priests’ children. Ambrose of Milan A fourth-century A.D. bishop and former provincial governor whose sermons inspired the young Augustine to take Christianity seriously. Dominic Guzman Founder of the Dominican order of mendicants, also called the “Order of Preachers”. Thomas Aquinas Catholic theologian and saint; author of the Summa Theologiae , a comprehensive overview of Christian theology; best known for his integration of the philosophy of Aristotle into Christian faith, his view of the compatibility of reason and revelation, and his “proofs” of God’s existence. John Cassian Known as the “Father of Western monasticism”, he sought to establish a standardized form of monasticism for the Western Roman Empire based upon the ideals of Eastern monasticism. A group of monks who, in the twelfth century A.D. , sought religious reform by returning to the primitive Benedictine life in wilderness areas. They are named
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Cistercians for their first hose at Citeaux in France. Averroes Medieval Muslim scholar, known for his learned commentaries on the works of Aristotle. Council of Nicaea An ecumenical council held in A.D 325, which maintained the true divinity of the Son (Jesus Christ) against the teaching of Arius. Stated that Jesus was fully God (they were the same). Shi’ites
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Theology Exam 2 Study Guide - Theology Exam 2.Study Guide...

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