Chapter 50 3.06.08

Chapter 50 3.06.08 - Chapter 50 1 Honors Biology Book Notes...

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Chapter 50 1 Honors Biology Book Notes Chapter 50 – Introduction to Ecology 3/05/08 - Intro to Ecology o Ecology: study of how organisms interact with their environments o Areas of Ecological study Ecologists work on 4 main level; (1) Organisms, (2) Populations, (3) Communities, (4) Ecosystems (1) Organisms Ecology Explore morphological physiological, behavioral adaptations that allow individuals to live successfully in particular area Behavioral studies focus on how individual reacts to particular stimuli from environment [change in temperature, moisture, rival challenging for mate, etc.] Study physiological adaptations to heat, drought, demanding physical conditions (2) Population Ecology Population : group of individuals of same species that lives in same area/same time Focus on how number of individuals in population changes over time [ex. Fate of endangered species] Use of mathematical models extensive (3) Community Ecology Community : consists of species that interact with each other within particular area Concerned with nature of interactions between species and consequences of those interactions Contact/impact studied, like predation, parasitism, competition (4) Ecosystem Ecology Extension of community ecology Abiotic : non-living components, like air, water, soil Ecosystem: consists of all organisms in particular region, along with nonliving components Analyze how chemical elements that act as nutrients cycle through ecosystems, how energy flows, how nutrients/energy move between organisms & surrounding atmosphere/soil Conservation biology : effort to study, preserve, restore threatened populations, communities, ecosystems Use same data as ecologists to advise to restore species/environments
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Chapter 50 2 Ecologists provide theory/data, conservationists provide remedies o Nature of Environment Has both biological (consist of other members of organisms own species/individuals of other species, parasites, predators, competitors, etc) /physical (temperature, wind, sunlight, chemical composition of aquatic environments) components Exotic : organisms introduced into a region where they do not normally live, example of how humans altering biotic environments o Physical Components of Environment Climate Climate : prevailing long-term weather conditions in particular area Weather : consists of specific short-term atmospheric conditions (temp, moisture, sunlight, wind) Temperature o Important b/c enzymes work at optimal efficiency only in narrow range of temps o Most organisms cannot regulate own body temp (except vertebrates) o Affects availability of moisture Moisture o Animals lose water through evaporation/transpiration Sunlight o Essential for photosynthesis o Varies with time of year/shading in terrestrial habitat, depth of water in aquatic Wind o Increases heat loss due to evaporation/convection, increases water loss due to transpiration/evaporation
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 1111 taught by Professor Hassan during the Spring '08 term at Temple.

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Chapter 50 3.06.08 - Chapter 50 1 Honors Biology Book Notes...

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