Midterm-1-Key - Evolution Name Fall 2011 Student number...

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Unformatted text preview: Evolution Name: Fall 2011 Student number: Midterm Exam #1 There are 15 questions totaling 45 points on this exam. Point allocation is given next to each question. Your final mark for the exam will be the percentage of points out of 45. The exam is worth 20% of your final course grade. No notes or textbook can be used during the exam. 'No assistance between students is allowed. If a question is unclear to you raise your hand and an instructor will try to help. 2‘.»- how WM 2 €er 093w ’l [1] [2] [a] What is our best estimate of the age of our universe? What type of data forms the basis of this estimate? (2 points) befowawe, lawlcsfowv; [Malawi/x or (b 81+?owxc9‘lf3 ouiofifsa [b] When did earth first form? What type of data forms the basis of this estimate? [2 points] 4C0 lO—fc/x (4’5" 107%». aka?) (9 (0‘9“0W4f‘b amjfivfl O¥ Woleofijrég eb— (D IMOOM malts [a] List the geological eras in chronological order and indicate the approximate dates that these eras encompass. [2 points) erl-E/‘D EOFO— 2—950 MAW/pd,- gq 2_ M7“ 0 l' Paley gore, — 547, w—froc— ZS! W-fC‘A Meaofiofc/ _, ZS] me— Q '3’ Wot _J£ Dorcas}. error Oplo CGIAD%O?C, fl C95, VAR/0‘— E" (Pipe/Swl‘lr [b] Identify the eras that these events occurred: origin of prokaryotes, first appearance of eukaryotes in fossil record, most animal phyla first present and origin of land [terrestrial] plants? (2 points) [3] [4] [5] [a] Darwin’s thinking was influenced by Uniformitarianism. In terms of “causes” operating through geological time, what was the Uniformitarian view? [2 points] +Ltrod5 Li and 9 (20 [Dbl C42» ( gag/we. 00w S @3 “hi WVQ-. C2) @ [b] During Darwin’s voyage of the Beagle, what was an observation that he made that provided support for the Uniformitarian view? (2 points] Cape, (Jere):— lslmra’s 3 ‘0?ch owl gag-m wimpy. Lo vale/omit, Whom lay—far &U€L (Ll/tile: 6MP! cit/Mtg: upllMeQ gecfilwewlwy (“fear @ "per 0m ad‘— 'l'Q/ Oshawa, I O+lherg «F093; lole What process did Darwin propose that causes species to diversify morphologically? (1 point) madly ire-J 3 glee/d"! UM [a] What are four levels of biological organization that natural selection can act? (2 points) [b] What level of biological organization did Darwin’s theory of natural selection focus on? (2 points) vlvx Idl thud [6] When would a maximum likelihood approach to phylogenetic tree estimation be advantageous relative to a parsimony approach? [2 points) @ gar ellrWD ,2 W94» FWEiVV‘OMrc’i/S W bO’H/lO-Vfl ° OWer/r Oboe/‘5 (Li S KIWI/Jojo): LSLC— [0655+ [7] Using the cladistic method, what is the phylogenetic tree of a set of species with the following table of shared-derived character states? (4 points] _ Character _------_l_l- I-I_---E-E-l_l_l_ I--I__--I_--I_ I--E-I_I_E-E-I_1-l_ I_- l__ —-_l_- [8] What are two processes that can result in a pair of species sharing a derived character state? [2 points) 5 [Awe/o) awe/ea» Jrr'xf @ “OW r ‘W/ 0 [9] Which species is or are most closely related to species A? [3 points) A1309 5 [10] Give an example of an actual evolutionary fact? [1 point) [U369 ac) “Ire lo 6,- V‘eer-l Awe) SEQ} L C. “£0!" 0» be)“ (\DOTW‘k' - [11] Using the principle of parsimony, what is the best estimate of the character state of the ancestor of the following set of species? At a minimum, how many character state changes are necessary given your estimate of the ancestor? (2 points] AAAAisA Charo-9W" 9 “LC 3 7 1 (9A or [12] Using real examples and concepts from class, identify one or more problems that may occur if a single gene is used to infer the common ancestry of a set of species. (4 points) Eat—achleg. ox ’Pv’oklbwfi3 3 «law ) Mfr. Cw lwcowe‘wle ““056 SO’l‘fi kafi 2 wwsl‘ [Folkaw‘l‘f @Alms-Qfif‘i CS) \Ar \md (9‘ 33034113” f I $l0’u) SmeUc)[U—HM I @ MWPKQ Wat" “WV/S 05> @de 3’ car (are) CZ) CD HEW W‘ (0 W540 QWFWJ l0 Vim/(eow W I ()m‘olam olfldgams? S Jim/x) (:3 WWW 3W WU mp lei 96mg E—l’iow\ C97 9-. , _ v—b meager; 460420 lw-QF‘C/w-‘e cpl/Ly 0v @mlolevm ii :5 [13] Using a phylogenetic approach, how would you distinguish a horizontal gene transfer event that was recent and involved a replacement from a horizontal gene transfer even that was ancient and involved a replacement? [4 points) [14] [a] If species- -level data' is used to determine whether the states of two characters are correlated, what assumption of a correlation is violated? (1 point] \( {A 9Q"? edeweé, [b] What method can be used to correct for this violated assumption? [1 point] - in de( ewdewl chtlms'l 5 [15] Using a phylogenetic approach, how could you differentiate between a gene duplication that occurred before a speciation event versus a gene duplication that occurred after a speciation event? (4 points) game, ckoh [0429 moroesfiM/CFBS @ YP/ ...
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