Possible Short Answer Questions - What are the two tenets...

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What are the two tenets of rationalism? 1. At least some knowledge is innate. Reason alone can provide genuine knowledge. How did the developments in Descartes’ time influence his “method of doubt”? 3. 2. The telescope and microscope were invented. Showed that the world was more complex (things that are far away and small are a lot different than they seem to be). Therefore we should be suspicious of beliefs we base off of sense. List Descartes’ three criteria for a foundational principle. 4. 3. It has to be totally self evident and impossible to doubt. Must be ultimate. Must be about an object that exists. What is Descartes’ “cogito” and what is one major criticism to it? 4. Cogito- I think therefore I am. Descartes is only justified in that he is in thought, not that he is a thinking thing. Why doesn’t Descartes think that God would deceive anyone? 6. 5. Because God is perfect and deception is a mark of weakness. Spinoza claimed that the only substance is what? How, then, does he account for the existence of individual people? 7. 6. Spinoza said that the only substance is God. Individuals are modes of God. Leibniz claimed that a substance is what? What is the connection between mind and body, in his view? 8. 7. Leibniz claims that everyone is a monad. The mind and the body are “pre-established harmony”. What are the two tenets of empiricism? 9. 8. None of our ideas are innate. Reason is insufficient to extend our knowledge.
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Locke claimed that, at birth, the mind is what? In what two ways do we acquire knowledge? 9. The mind is a clean slate at birth. We get knowledge through sensation, introspection, and reflection. Explain the difference between primary and secondary qualities, giving an example of each. 11. 10. Primary Qualities are like shape, size, location (don’t depends on perceptions.) Secondary qualities depend on perceptions- color, odor, ect. Why did Berkeley deny that there are any physical substances? 12. 11. Berkeley says that “to be is to be perceived.” Everything depends on perception. Hume claimed that there are two kinds of perceptions? What are they and what is the connection between them? 13. 12. Ideas are copies of impressions. Impressions are sense experiences. Why did Hume claim that we have no idea of a “cause”? 14. 13. We have no impression of a cause therefore we cannot get an idea. Why did Hume claim that we have no idea of a “self”?
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