Possible Short Answer Questions - Possible Short Answer...

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Unformatted text preview: Possible Short Answer Questions Five (5) of them will appear on the Second Exam 1. What are the two tenets of rationalism? 2. How did the developments in Descartes’ time influence his “method of doubt”? 3. List Descartes’ three criteria for a foundational principle. 4. What is Descartes’ “cogito” and what is one major criticism to it? 5. Why doesn’t Descartes think that God would deceive anyone? 6. Spinoza claimed that the only substance is what? How, then, does he account for the existence of individual people? 7. Leibniz claimed that a substance is what? What is the connection between mind and body, in his view? 8. What are the two tenets of empiricism? 9. Locke claimed that, at birth, the mind is what? In what two ways do we acquire knowledge? 10. Explain the difference between primary and secondary qualities, giving an example of each. 11. Why did Berkeley deny that there are any physical substances? 12. Hume claimed that there are two kinds of perceptions? What are they and what is the connection between them? 13. Why did Hume claim that we have no idea of a “cause”? 14. Why did Hume claim that we have no idea of a “self”? 15. What kind of argument is the “design argument”? In that case, why can’t we be certain about its conclusion? Possible Short Essays – Six (6) will be on the Exam; have to answer Four (4) 1. Explain Descartes’ three stages of doubt and how he passes through each. 2. List and explain the four problems with Descartes’ skepticism. 3. Explain Descartes “wax analogy,” stating at least three of its implications. 4. First, explain Descartes’ argument for dualism in Meditation II. Then, present the objection to that argument. Next, provide Descartes’ better argument for dualism in Mediation VI. 5. First, explainwhy Descartes believes that God would never deceive anyone. Then, explain how it is possible that human beings sometimes make mistakes in judgment. 6. Why does Cleanthes reject Philo’s version of skepticism? What dilemma does he pose to try and refute this doctrine? Why does he believe that Philo is inconsistent? 7. What is Cleanthes’s “irregular design argument” in Part III of the Dialogues What are the two analogies he invokes to support this argument? 8. Explain why Cleanthes’ conception of God undermines his own position, making reference to Hume’s “Bundle Theory,” The arbirtrariness of stopping with a plan in a divine mind, and anthropomorphism. 9. In Part IX of the Dialogues Demea provides an “a priori” argument for God’s existence which is then criticized by Cleanthes. Just list and EXPLAIN Cleanthes’s four criticisms to Demea’s argument. 10. In Part XI of the Dialogues, Philo contends that there is less reason to infer a deity than there is evidence in its favor, referring to the inferential problem of evil. List and EXPLAIN the four circumstances that he claims are unnecessary and avoidable. Long Essay Options Answer One (1) 1. First, provide Descartes’ first proof for God’s existence in Meditation III. Then, present at least one criticism to that proof. Next, provide Descartes’ “ontological proof” for God’s existence in Meditation V. Then, present at least one criticism to that proof. Finally, present the Cartesian Circle problem, explaining how it is connected with Descartes’ proofs for God’s existence. Is this a vicious circle? Explain 2. First, present Cleanthes’ version of the Design Argument in Part II of the Dialogues Then, explain each of the following problems with this argument: (1) Philo’s objection that it rests on a “weak analogy”; (2) Philo’s claim that Cleanthes’s argument has no basis in experience; (3) Philo’s claim that it is susceptible to both the Fallacy of Hasty Generalization and the Fallacy of Composition; and (4) Philo’s claim that the argument forces us to attribute some very ungodlike traits to God. ...
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Christopher Reinemann
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