con11th - ATTITUDES ATTITUDES I dont like your attitudes...

This preview shows page 1 out of 61 pages.

Unformatted text preview: ATTITUDES ATTITUDES I don’t like your attitudes toward Republicans! Please observe class Please policies Lecture objectives Lecture 1. To introduce the concept of attitude 2. To examine what underlies consumer attitude formation 3. To introduce different models of attitude 4. To show how attitude components are measured. 5. To show you what approaches marketers can use to change consumer attitudes (Attitude Change Strategies) Lecture objectives (continued) 6. To show you the impact of consumer involvement with an attitude object and involvement attitude formation and change 7. To introduce communication characteristics that influence attitude formation and change Text-book’s Definition Text-book’s An attitude is an enduring organization of motivational emotional, perceptual, and cognitive processes with cognitive with respect to some aspect of our environment. ATTITUDES ATTITUDES An attitude is a learned An learned predisposition to behave in a predisposition to in consistently favorable or consistently unfavorable way with respect to a unfavorable given object. (Gordon Allport) (Gordon given Attitudes can be used to predict behavior. Alternatively, behavior can be used to infer the underlying attitudes. Cognition Stimuli Stimuli Products retail retail outlet outlet ads etc. Belief, Belief, knowledge knowledge about brand attributes. Affective Emotions about brand attributes Behaviooral Behavioral intentions A t t I t u d e 1. THE ATTITUDE “OBJECT” THE Attitude object should be used Attitude in a broad sense. in Includes product, brand, service, issues, persons, events. events. 2. ATTITUDES ARE LEARNED ATTITUDES Learning is the result of direct Learning experience with attitude object, experience information obtained from various sources, and so on. various 3. PREDISPOSITION PREDISPOSITION Attitudes are not synonymous with behavior but reflect either a favorable or unfavorable evaluation of the attitude object. evaluation Attitudes have a motivational Attitudes component. component. 4. ATTITUDES HAVE CONSISTENCY ATTITUDES Attitudes have consistency with Attitudes the behavior they reflect. the Consistency does not mean that attitudes are permanent. attitudes 5. ATTITUDES OCCUR WITHIN A ATTITUDES SITUATION SITUATION Situation is an event or circumstance, for example circumstance, buying gifts, or drinks in a bar buying (vs. home). (vs. We may have different attitudes We toward a given object at different toward situations. STRUCTURAL MODELS STRUCTURAL OF ATTITUDES TRICOMPONENT ATTITUDE MODEL Knowledge Conation Affect beliefs beliefs Knowledge ------------- facts etc. etc. If attitudes have three components, we need to know how, If they are related. Do we think first and then act, or do we they act first and think afterward? act When we see a person, product, brand or any other object, do we just feel sudden burst of emotion immediately, and then we might think about it or act on it? Learning Hierarchy of Attitudes Cognitive (thoughts) Affective (Feelings) Conative (action tendency) Emotional Hierarchy of Attitudes Affect (Feelings) Conative Conative (action tendency) Cognitive (thoughts) initiator Stimuli Product Situation retail retail outlets outlets Etc. component cognitive cognitive Component manifestation Attitude Beliefs about Beliefs specific attributes specific Affective Emotions about specific attributes Behavioral Behavioral Behavioral intentions intentions Overall orientation toward toward object object Affect : like or dislike emotions , feelings cognition affect Conation Conation Conation = likelihood tendency intentions intentions to buy to Attitude = affect The model tells you what people feel about an object, but it feel does not tell you why. SAM and ad Sam: the question is how to measure consumers’ SAM emotions and bypassing cognitive processing that often goes emotions along with verbal scales along One approach is to use PAD (Pleasure -arousal -dominance One SAM Self-Assessment Manikin SAM For more details of this approach please read the article in course For information menu entitled ADSAM® Emotional Response Model How to measure the components of attitudes Selective Evaluative Scale Used Selective to Gauge Consumers’ Attitudes Toward Oil of Olay Bath Bar Compared to other moisturizer bath bars, Oil of Compared Olay Bath Bar is: Olay Good [1] Positive [1] Pleasant [1] Appealing [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [2] [3] [4] [5] [2] [3] [4] [5] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [6] [6] [6] [7] [7] [7] [7] Bad Negative Unpleasant Unappealing Measuring the Affective Component Measuring very My skin felt My skin felt My skin felt My skin felt My skin felt My skin felt Not very relaxed [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] tight [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] beautiful [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] supple [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] oily [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] soft [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] An Example of Intention to An Buy How likely are you to buy a new camera How during the next three months? during ----- very likely ---- likely ---- unlikely ---- very unlikely An other example of intention-to-buy scale. Which of the following statements best describes the chance that you will buy red French table wine during the next month. during - I definitely will buy a bottle - I probably will buy a bottle Why positive attitudes Why may not lead to purchase? 1. Consumer may not have a need for 1. the product. the 2. Consumer may not have the funds 2. (ability to purchase) (ability 3. Consumer may trade off within and 3. among product category among 4. Other household members may 4. influence influence cont. WHY WHY 5. 5. 6. 6. (CONT.) (CONT.) Purchase situation may be different Cognitive and feeling are weak and change before purchase. change 7. Difficult to measure all aspects of cognition and feelings. cognition MULTI-ATTRIBUTE MODELS MULTI-ATTRIBUTE Fishbein Models Fishbein 1. The basic Multiattribute model n Ajk = B ijk i=1 I ik I= attribute or product characteristic J= brand K= consumer A = consumer k’s attitude score for brand j I= the importance weight given attribute I by consumer k B= consumer k’s belief as to the extent to which as satisfactory level of attribute I is offered by brand j Ideal Attribute Model Ideal n w A= i I-X i b i i=1 Note: the lower the score, the higher the chance of brand acceptance. Ideal brand Ideal A graphic representation of ideal attribute model THE ATTITUDE - TOWARD - BEHAVIOR THE MODEL MODEL The focus of Fishbein’s attitude The toward behavior model is the individual’s toward attitude toward behaving or acting with attitude respect to an object, rather than the attitude toward the object itself. n Attitude (beh.) = = b e (e importance) (e i=l ii i bi - is the strength of the belief that bi an ith specific action will lead to an a specific outcome examples of bi examples Buying a Bulova watch is very likely very () () very unlikely to give me a distinctive looking watch watch How Attitudes Are Learned How • Classical Conditioning Classical Attitude is the result of repeated satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the attitude object. Note: application of Note: Stimulus Generalization Stimulus Instrumental Conditioning Instrumental Attitudes follow the purchase Attitudes the of a product (no other brand is available) or consumer makes a trial purchase. Note the importance of Note positive and negative incentives incentives Cognitive Learning Theory Cognitive In situations in which consumers seek to solve a problem or satisfy a need, they are likely to form need, attitudes (+ or - ) about products attitudes on the basis of information exposure and their own cognition (knowledge and beliefs). Sources of Influence on Sources Attitude Formation • Direct Experience Direct • Influence of Family and Friends Influence • Direct Marketing Direct • Exposure to Mass Media Exposure ATTITUDE CHANGE STRATEGIES STRATEGIES In general there are five basic strategies available basic to the marketers: to Attitude Change Strategies Attitude 1. Changing the Consumer’s Basic motivational function Basic 2. Associating the product with an admired group or event. an 3. Resolving two conflicting attitudes 4. Altering components of multiattribute model. attribute 5. Changing consumers’ belief about competitors brand. competitors 1. Changing the basic motivational functions: motivational (The following functions are from Daniel Katz note: what types of needs are satisfied) 1-The utilitarian function (we have a positive attitude toward a brand because it works well.) (we Also called instrumental, adjustive function (Bentham and utilitarian constructed their model of man) 2-The ego-defensive function (product helps us to protect our self-image from inner feelings of uncertainty and doubt) (Freudian psychology and neo-Freudian thinking (Freudian have been preoccupied with this type of motivation and have its outcomes) Different defense mechanisms, rationalization, projection etc. 3-The Value-Expressive Function 3-The Attitudes are expression and reflection Attitudes of the consumer’s general values, of lifestyle, and outlook. This function is central to doctrines of ego This psychology which stress the importance of selfpsychology expression, self-development and self-realization (example, political candidate’s position example, on abortion issue) on 4-Knowledge function (based on individual’s need to give adequate structure to his universe. 5-Combining Several Functions Why is it important to know about Why the functions of attitude? Because if we want to change a consumer’s attitude toward something, we should need to address the function(s) it serves for that consumer Attitude Change Strategy (cont.) Attitude 2. Associating the Brand with a Special Group, Event, or Special Cause Cause 3. Resolving two conflicting 3. Attitudes conflict I love love full-tasting full-tasting cheese too much fat in such cheese Festinger’s dissonance theory Healthy Choice has a fat-free cheese 4. Changing the components 4. of Multi-attribute model a. changing brand beliefs b. changing the relative importance of brand attributes importance c. changing the number of brand attributes attributes d. changing the ideal brand d. attributes Alternative Attitude Change Strategies Alternative Initial belief structure and attitude (attitude=300) Importance Price 50 Taste 50 Social status 0 100 100 Ideal 3 5 3 A= 50 (3-5) + 50 (5-1) +0 (3-4) A= 100+200+0=300 Belief 5 1 4 Alternative Attitude Change Strategies Alternative Initial belief structure and attitude (attitude=300) A. Strategy I: Change beliefs about brand (attitude=200) (attitude=200) Importance Ideal Belief Price Taste Social status 50 50 0 100 100 3 5 3 5 3 4 Alternative Attitude Change Strategies Alternative Initial belief structure and attitude (attitude=300) B. Strategy II: Shift attribute Importance (attitude=220) (attitude=220) Importance Ideal Belief Price Taste Social status 30 30 40 100 100 3 5 3 5 1 4 Alternative Attitude Change Strategies Alternative Initial belief structure and attitude (attitude=300) C. Strategy III: Add beliefs (attitude=220) Importance Ideal Belief Price 30 Taste 30 Social status 0 Fewer Calories 40 100 100 3 5 3 5 5 1 4 4 Alternative Attitude Change Strategies Alternative Initial belief structure and attitude (attitude=300) D. Strategy IV : Change beliefs about ideal (attitude=150) (attitude=150) Importance Ideal Belief Price Taste Social status 50 50 0 100 100 3 2 3 5 1 4 Hierarchies in Attitude Hierarchies Since attitudes have three components, the question is how these components, cognition, affect, and behavior are cognition, interrelated. Answer to this question depends on consumer involvement with consumer an attitude object. Theories of Low Involvement Consumer Behavior: (Consumer involvement and attitude formation and change) involvement 1. Krugman’s Theory of Passive Learning • Consumers learn information at random Consumers •Consumers are information catchers •Consumers represent a passive audience Consumers for advertising •Consumers evaluate brands after buying Consumers after •Consumers seek an acceptable rather Consumers than optimum level of satisfaction Sherif’s Theory of Social Judgment Sherif’s Attitude and Attitude change: the social Judgment Approach (title of the book) Individual’s position on an issue Latitude of Latitude of non- Latitude Rejection acceptance commitment Highly involved individual An uninvolved individual Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Elaboration proposed by Petty and Cacioppo (note: High- and low involvement Information-processing modes) The model presents a continuum from elaborate (central) processing to elaborate non-elaborate (peripheral) processing info. non-elaborate The degree of elaboration depends on the relevance of message to consumers. The model stresses the view that the The process of persuasion will be fundamentally process different when consumer elaborate on an add than when they do not. Elaboration in this model refers to thinking about the information provided in the about advertising message. advertising Exposure to marketing message Exposure Central route to Persuasion Motivated and able to process the ad’s major points Cognitive elaboration ad’s points occurs as consumer thinks about what it is saying Changes in LTM occur, and consumer attitude toward the brand becomes stronger (+ or -) Peripheral route to persuasion Low involvement with product, message, or decision Attention is given to cues in the ad, such as scenery, music, model scenery, endorser, etc. Tentative feelings of Tentative enjoyment or liking might enjoyment affect attitude, but not strongly held ELM continued Consumers attitudes are changed by Consumers two distinctly different “routes to two persuasion” How to change consumers’ persuasion” attitudes: •Low involved consumers, by cosmetic changes; •High involved by content of message Cue Relevance and Competitive Situation (page 404) Cue 1. Attitudes formed under the central route are stronger than attitudes formed under the peripheral route. 2. What is central or peripheral depends on product and situation for example an attractive picture can be peripheral or central 3. In a competitive situations important features of the products In are the same (central cues), consumers may prefer product with are strong peripheral cues Communication Characteristics Communication That Influence Attitude Formation And Change A Communication Model Source Source Message Feedback Channel Audience Planning flow Information flow Information Source Source What do we mean by source? Source credibility Celebrity source source congruity and incongruity Message Message Message structure characteristics one-sided vs. two-sided message one-sided comparative message comparative nonverbal components nonverbal Appeal Characteristics Appeal Fear Appeal Humorous appeals Emotional appeals are designed primarily to elicit affective response rather than to provide information or arguments. Value expressive versus Utilitarian appeals Note: products may provide: Utilitarian value also called instrumental value Expressive value (sometimes called symbolic value) Channels Channels Marketer-dominated channels Non-marketer dominated Non-marketer channels channels Audience Audience Source Congruity Source and incongruity Source Product Product + congruent + congruent congruent + Incongruent Incongruent + Incongruent Market Segmentation and Product Development Strategies Based Market on attitudes Market Segmentation: Benefit segmentation: Importance attached to product attributes may vary among consumer groups may ...
View Full Document

  • Fall '12
  • Pantel
  • Gordon Allport, Fishbein, low involvement

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern