comm 287 final - Wendy Chapkis "Beauty Secrets: Women and...

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Wendy Chapkis " Beauty Secrets: Women and the Politics of Appearance " Secrets: 1. What do "ugly" people remind us of in terms of vigilance? (p.2) 2. What happened to Chapkis when she moved out of the supportive feminist environment? (p.2) She had become ugly. 3. What does going beyond private solutions and reaching empowering conclusions entail? (p.3) Breaking the silence. Ugly as Sin: 4. What do social expectations create? (p.119) A looking glass into which we are invited to gaze while establishing a sexual identity. 5. Rather than blame the mirror of social expectations what do to create a "normal" reflection? (p.119) Most women will attempt painful contortions in an effort to create a more “normal” reflected image. 6. What does gender mean? (p.119) The culturally determined way members of a sex should behave and appear, even if it comes no more naturally than plucked eyebrows or a firm handshake. 7. What is held to be normal and ideal in heterosexual relationships? (p.119) A dominant masculine male coupled with a supportive feminine female. 8. What is at the heart of heterosexual masculine identity? (p.121) The fear of effeminacy. 9. Into the 1960s what did "Gay" mean? (p.121) Not a real man. 10. When is the fear of the breakdown of the sex/gender most strongly felt? (p.122) In periods of social reorganization.
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do? (p.123) Women are urged not to look like men and men are urged not to act like women. 12. Why is it extremely disturbing to be confronted with gender outlaws and sexual minorities? (p.125) Most people build an identity based on repeatedly proving and reasserting membership in one of two appropriate sex/gender groups. 13. What are people trying to fix who attempt to reshape their anatomy to fit gender ideals? (p.125) A conflict between social and sexual identity and anatomical reality. 14. What does looking at sexual/gender subcultures tell us about the majority culture? (p.125) There is a customary coupling of gender and sex. 15. What is the distinction between "butch" and "femme" style? (p.127) Butch style is a symbol of detachment , it gives the wearer the protection of being the observer, not the object. A femme-y look suggests self-display, it produces insecurity. 16. What does the "femme" invite? (p.127) The gaze. 17. Why did black lesbians take on "butch" style? (p.128) The vulnerability of being Black in that white world led some women to develop an intimidating butch style: tough, elegant, free-spending. They were aware of their vulnerability as a racial and sexual minority but intent on indicating that she meant to be treated with respect. 18. What do gender symbols suggest? (p.128) The proper etiquette of social interaction. 19. What is the most important function of gendered
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course COMM 287 taught by Professor Sutjhally during the Spring '07 term at UMass (Amherst).

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comm 287 final - Wendy Chapkis "Beauty Secrets: Women and...

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