OM习题及答案汇æ€&ra

OM习题及答案汇æ€&ra

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25 Chapter 1 Operations and Productivity DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Why should one study operations management? SOLUTION The text suggests four reasons to study OM. We want to understand (1) how people organize themselves for productive enterprise, (2) how goods and services are produced, (3) what operations managers do, and (4) this costly part of our economy and most enterprises. 6. What are the three basic functions of a firm? SOLUTION The basic functions of a firm are marketing, accounting/ finance, and operations. An interesting class discussion: “Do all firms/organizations (private, government, not-for-profit) perform these three functions?” The authors’ hypothesis is yes, they do. 7. Name the 10 decision areas of operations management. SOLUTION 1. Design of Goods and Services. 2. Managing Quality. 3. Process Strategy. 4. Location Strategies. 5. Layout Strategies. 6. Human Resources. 7. Supply-Chain Management. 8. Inventory Management. 9. Scheduling. 10. Maintenance. 13.Describe some of the actions taken by Taco Bell to increase productivity that have resulted in Taco Bell’s ability to serve “twice the volume with half the labor.” SOLUTION Taco Bell designed meals that were easy to prepare; with actual cooking and food preparation done elsewhere; automation to save preparation time; reduced floor space; manager training to increase span of control. PROBLEMS 1.1John Lucy makes wooden boxes in which to ship motorcycles. John and his three employees invest 40 hours per day making the 120 boxes.
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25 a) What is their productivity? b) John and his employees have discussed redesigning the process to improve the productivity. If they can increase the rate to 125 per day, what will be their new productivity? c) What will be their increase in productivity? SOLUTION (a) = 3.0 boxes/hour (b) = 3.125 boxes/hour (c) Change in productivity = 0.125 boxes/hour (d) Percentage change = = 4.166% 1.6 Eric Johnson makes billiard balls in his New England plant. With recent increases in his costs, he has a newfound interest in efficiency. Eric is interested in determining the productivity of his organization. He would like to know if his organization is maintaining the manufacturing average of 3% increase in productivity. He has the following data representing a month from last year and an equivalent month this year: LAST YEAR NOW Units produced 1,000 1,000 Labor (hours) 300 275 Resin (pounds) 50 45 Capital invested ($) 10,000 11,000 Energy (BTU) 3,000 2,850 Show the productivity change for each category and then determine the improvement for labor-hours, the typical standard for compassion. SOLUTION      Resource Last Year This Year Change Percent Change Labor =3.33 =3.64 0.31 =9.3% Resin =20 =22.22 2.22 =11.1% Capital =0.1 =0.09 -0.01 =-10.0%
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25 Energy =0.33 =0.35 0.02 =6.1% 1.7 Eric Johnson (using data from Problem 1.6) determines his costs to be as follows: · labor $10 per hour; · resin $5 per pound; · capital 1% per month of investment; · energy $.50 per BTU.
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