European History November 18 - European History WWII(2 Nazi...

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European History November 18, 2011 WWII (2) Nazi Expansion 1939-1941 Mussolini’s War Italy was neither military nor economically prepared for a long war o The Fascist State failed to coordinate the mobilization of economic resources o Shortage f raw materials, faltering industrial output and inadequate military production o Absence of military equipment and military leadership of quality for the level of combat On June 10 – Mussolini declared war on a defeated France On Sept. 27 – three power pact in Berlin (Germany, Japan and Italy) – 10 years mutual military assistance Greco-Italian War (October 1940 – April 23, 1941) Mussolini decided to invade Greece and to create an Italian sphere of influence in southern Balkans Greece halted Italian invasion and launched a counteroffensive (supported by the British expeditionary force in crete) Italian forces thrown back in southern Albania Stalemate of war Nazi intervention in the Balkans Nazi developed troops in Rumania, Hungary and Bulgaria April 6, Nazi invasions of Yugoslavia and Greece April 17, Surrender of Yugoslavia April 23: Surrender of Greece Nazi attack against the soviet Union delayed 6 weeks Soviet occupation of the Baltic States and part of Finland (Winter War) War in North Africa Sept. 13-15, 1940 Italian forces invade Egypt – to gain control of North Africa and of the eastern Mediterranean November 13 – Battle of Taranto o British aircraft carrier attacked the Italian naval base of Taranto, inflicting huge losses on the Italian fleet December 8-12: British counteroffensive in Egypt – Italians forced into a sudden retreat Italian loss of East Africa (Ethiopia, Somaliland) March 24 – May 29, 1941: German intervention (African Krops) under the leadership of Edwin Rommel
Axis Victories – relative stalemate The Nazi New Order (1941) Direct annexations Direct German Administration: Poland, Norway, Holland, Belgium, Northern France Satellites: Denmark, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Vichy France Puppet regimes: Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece Friendly neutrals: Spain, Switzerland, Sweden The Nazi New Order On October 7, 1939 – Himmler was appointed head of the Reich Commissariat

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