Final Study guide for Psych 355

Final Study guide for Psych 355 - CHAPTER 7: Executive...

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CHAPTER 7: Executive processes What are the symptoms that comprise the frontal lobe syndrome? What type of brain injury is associated with frontal lobe syndrome? Symptoms: Impairments in ability to plan and adapt to changing circumstances, has to follow a rigid routine (not well adapted to change), difficulty initiating and planning actions, difficulty switching from one task to the next, relatively unaware of cognitive deficits. Brain injury : Results from damage to the frontal lobes, especially the prefrontal cortex The Stroop task, the Wisconsin Card Sort task and the Tower of Hanoi problem are all used to diagnose frontal lobe syndrome and executive dysfunction. Can you describe each of these tasks and explain which executive processes are required for performance of these tasks? Stroop task: patients name the color that the word is printed in and ignore the meaning of the word. Patients with frontal lobe damage are much slower in the incompatible condition with more errors than people with normal functioning brains because they have a difficult time inhibiting the reading response in order to name the color. (suppressing automatic but incorrect responses) Wisconsin Card Sort task: Match the new card to the “correct” old card, the criterion for “correct” old card keeps changing over sequences of trials. Patients with frontal lobe damage show normal performances on the 1 st run of trials, but have exceptional difficulty when the experimenter changes the rule because they have difficulty adapting to changing circumstances. Tower of Hanoi Problem: Goal: to move the rings one at a time from the pin 1 to pin 3, pin 2 for intermediate steps, must move one ring at a time, move only the top ring on any stack, larger rings can never go on top of smaller rings. In order to complete the problem, the person must work backwards. Patients with frontal lobe damage have extreme difficulty with the planning aspects and completion of this task What is meant by executive attention? What kinds of tasks demand executive attention? When is executive attention not needed for task performance? How do automatic and controlled processes relate to the deployment of executive attention? Executive attention: Directs processing, needed when holding multiple representations in WM or multiple Controlled Processes: Requires executive attention, suppressing automatic but incorrect responses (stroop task), performing w/ incompatible response mappings the computer screen and button (stimulus/response compatibility manipulations), performing a controlled task that is not highly practiced (parallel parking) Automatic Processes: Can be initiated w/o intention, operated very rapidly, operates w/o conscious control of the process ex. Reading, speaking, typing, does not require executive attention. The chapter describes some of the main processes that are involved in the control of executive
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Final Study guide for Psych 355 - CHAPTER 7: Executive...

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