exam 1 study guide

exam 1 study guide - Exam 1 Study Guide Portuguese...

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Exam 1 Study Guide Portuguese exploration Originally for fishing-fish, seals, whales, etc Land hunger -timber, etc Discovery of Azores, Madeiras Islands Acquisition of land to plant sugarcane-increased demand in Europe The Lure of Trade Maritime routes to Asia-spices, silk, porcelain Silk roads more dangerous since spread of Bubonic plague and Ottoman Empire Prices, profits increase Indian pepper, Chinese ginger increasingly essential to diet of European wealthy class African gold, ivory, slaves Missionary Efforts Franciscan, Dominican missionaries to India, Central Asia, and China Violent efforts with crusades, Reconquista -reconquista ended in 1492, an auspicious  year                    Retaking Spain from Muslims The Technology of Exploration Chinese (stern) rudder introduced in 12th century  Square sails replaced with triangular lateen sales-work better with cross winds Navigational instruments-compass, astrolabe Knowledge of winds, currents The Volta do Mar-"return through the sea" Portuguese Breakthroughs Prince Henry of Portugal (1394-1460) -promoted exploration of west African coast -established fortified trading posts 1488 Barolomeo Dias rounds Cape of Good Hope, enters Indian Ocean Basin-storms,  restless crew forced to return Vasco de Gama reaches India by this route, 1497-by 1500, a trading post at Calicut  Christopher Columbus  Believed Earth was smaller-estimated Japan approximately 2,500 miles west of  Canaries (actually 10,000) Portuguese kings do not fund proposed westward trip, skeptical of potential success  Fernando and Isabel of Spain underwrite voyage Discovers Bahamas, Cuba Hemispheric Links Columbus tries 3 times, never reaches Asia
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But by early 16th century, several powers follow-English, Spanish, French, Dutch Realization of value of newly discovered Americas  Circumnavigation of the Globe Vasco de Balboa finds Pacific Ocean while searching for gold in Panama 1513-distance  to Asia unknown Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) not supported by Portuguese, uses Spanish support to  circumnavigate the globe in 1519-1522 -sails through Strait of Magellan at southern tip of South America -crew assailed by scurvy, 35/250 sailors die Magellan killed in political dispute in Philippines   Exploration of the Pacific Spanish build Philippines-Mexico trade route English, Russians look for northwest passage to Russia Most of route clogged by ice in Arctic Circle-Norwegian Roald Amudsen completes route  only in 20th century Sir Frances Drake (England) explores west coast of North America Vitus Bering (Russia) sails through Bering Strait
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exam 1 study guide - Exam 1 Study Guide Portuguese...

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