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1. What were the causes of the war? What attempts were made beforehand to prevent war? The Civil War was caused over many issues. Three primary issues that contributed to the Civil War include, 1) fugitive slave laws, 2) expansion of slavery, and 3) the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. These outwards signs and symbols were results of tension from the states not feeling their rights were preserved and discontentment about territorial expansion (). There was a growing disconnect between the North and the South leading up to the war. Before the war, many slaves would try to escape to the north to be free from their oppressive masters. This was a huge enough issue that the southern states pushed congress to return all slaves that escaped to their masters even if they were in the north. As a wayto appease the southern states, Henry Clay came up with the Compromise of 1850, in which it gave the responsibility to enforce and create new laws on escaped slaves (Fugitive Slave Act, September 1850).As America expanded out west, the issue of slavery grew. Before, any state below the Mason-Dixon Line was considered a slave state and thus made it easy to contain slavery. However, with the expansion out west, states like California did not want slavery and was in the south. In the 1850 compromise, new states that were allowed to vote on the issue of slavery on if they wanted it in their new state. However, this led to many northerners and southerners moving to these new territories resulting increased tensions with each other. Finally, the election of 1860 resulting in the presidency of Abraham Lincoln contributed to the Civil War. Although Lincoln despised the practice of slavery, in debates he had to take a moderate view on it because he had to earn votes from the general public in order to win. He had made it public that he intended to halt the expansion of slavery in the west, this was something that the south could not stand for it. On the election day Abraham Lincoln won, however he did so without winning a
single vote from the south. On December 20, 1860 South Carolina would be the first state to leave the Union.2. Describe the general course of the war (major battles, leader decisions, significant events). What was the turning point for victory or defeat?The battles of Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg were all instrumental turning points in the Civil War. Antietam was rooted in the South’s reliance of foreign assistance. The Confederacy would have benefitted from the intervention of Great Britain. The beginning of the war saw the south defeating the Union army at the battle of Bull Run. A swift war wouldn’t come