Exam 1 Study Guide.docx - Exam 1 Study Guide Exam...

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Exam 1 Study Guide Exam Synapomorphy vs. simpleisiomoprhy o Synapomorphy Shared derived traits (different than ancestor) o Simpleisiomorphy Shared ancestral traits (same as ancestor) Homology – similar structures that are ancestral Homoplasies – similar structures not shared by ancestor (derived) Intro to Bio Anthropology What is biological anthropology? o Define anthropology The study of the human condition Anthro – Greek “humanity” -ology – Greek “study” o Define each of the four subfields of anthropology Biological anthropology: humans as a biological species; evolutionary theory is an underlying theme Cultural anthropology: human culture Archaeology: material culture of humans Linguistic anthropology: human language o Provide examples of the interdisciplinary nature of biological anthropology Genetics, anatomical sciences, evolutionary biology, paleontology, primatology, forensic sciences, paleopathology, and human biology all play a role in biological anthropology The Scientific Method Describe the steps of the scientific method. o Ask a question o Do background research Gather facts and opinions for the next step o Construct a hypothesis An “educated guess” Must be testable and falsifiable o Conduct an experiment Observations facts o Analyze your data and draw a conclusion o Communicate your results Compare and contract facts and opinions. o Facts are based on observation6
Explain how the study of evolution in biological anthropology is distinct from personal belief systems. o Science deals with empirical evidence while religion deals with things that cannot be observed Darwin & Natural Selection Describe the factors that set the stage for the theory of evolution by natural selection. o Traditional approach to understanding the natural world was based on classification o Geologists demonstrated deep time o Fixity of species called into question o Selective breeding well-established o Functionalism o Limits on population (idea from Malthus) o Aristotle: initiated paradigm shift away from an anthropocentric universe o Copernicus: “heliocentric model”; huge impact on how people thought about their place in the universe and biological processes o Linnaeus: detailed taxonomy; binomial nomenclature; assumed fixity of species o Leclerc: questioned fixity of species; recognized interaction of environment and species, but did not provide a mechanism for this o Cuvier: functionalism; catastrophism; did not believe in evolution; first to believe that extinction occurs; based everything on the fossil record o Lamarck: natural processes produce radical changes in living organisms; believed in evolution and that animals could change because of their environment; first to propose a mechanism by which evolution occurs o Saint-Hilaire: homology; saltation and salutorial evolution (one generation can birth an entire new species based on the environment) o Lyell: uniformitarianism; introduced idea of Deep Time; theory of evolution doesn’t work without the concept of deep time

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