Chapter 4: Nature, Nurture, and Human DiversityMod 4.1 Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences-Behavior geneticists study our differences and weight the effects and the interplay of heredity and environment Behavior Genetics: the study of relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influence on behavior Heredity: the genetic transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring Environment: every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us -nature vs nurture argument. Can It be both? Yes, both can influence a way a person is. Subsection: Genes: Our Codes for Life-23chromosomes from mom + 23chromosomes from dad = YOU(46 chromosomes) -A chromosome is composed of acoiled chain of the molecule DNA. -Altogether, you have some20,000 genes, which are either active (expressed) or inactive. -Environmental events “turn on” genes, rather like hot water enabling a tea bag to express its flavor. -When turned on, genes provide the code for creating protein molecules, our body’s building blocks. Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes. Genes: the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins
-Genetically speaking, every other human is nearly you identical twin. Human genome researchers have discovered a common sequence within human DNA> This shared genetic profile is what makes us humans, rather than tulips, bananas, or chimps. Genome: the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes. -At a genetic standpoint, humans and chimpanzees are 96 percent identical. At “functionally important” DNA sites, this number reaches 99.4 percent. However, that .6 percent difference matters! -Small differences matter among other species too. Common chimpanzees and bonobos resemble each other in many ways. Even though it is a small difference in their DNA, they show very different traits. For example, chimpanzees are aggressive, and male dominated, and Bonobos are peaceful, and female led. -” Weshare half our genes with the banana” - Evolutionary biologist Robert May, president of Britain's Royal Society, 2001 -The occasional variations found at gene sites in human DNA fascinate geneticists and psychologists. Slight person to person variations from the common pattern gives clues to our uniqueness- why one person has a disease that another does not, why one person is tall and another short, why one is anxious and another calm -Most of our traits have complex genetic roots -Physical traits along with traits such as intelligence, happiness, and aggressiveness are each similarly influenced by many genes.