Chapter 6 Module 1: Basic Concepts of Sensation and PerceptionSensation: the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment-Being voice blind is called “phonosgonsia”, which means one doesn’t have the ability to recognize voices -These gifts allow each animal to obtain essential information -For example, human ears are most sensitive to sound frequencies that include human voices, especially a baby -Mix of perfect vision and face blindness illustrates the distinction between sensation and perception. When Sellers looks at a friend, sensation is normal, but the perception is off. The perception is the way in which her brain organizes and interprets information Sensory Receptors: sensory nerve endings that respond to stimuliPerception: the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information Under normal circumstances, sensation and perception blend into a CONTINOUS PROCESS Bottom-Up Processing: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory informationTop- Down Processing: information processing guided by higher-level mental processes as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations -Bottom up processing allows sensory systems to detect lines, angles, colors, and anything visual or sensory coming from an input -Top down processing interprets what your senses detect TransductionWhat 3 steps are basic to all our sensory systems? Every day our sensory systems convert one form of energy into another. -Vision processes light energy, hearing processes sound waves, etc
-The process of converting one form of energy into another is called transduction -The field of psychophysics studies the relationships between the physical energy we can detect and its effects on our psychological experiences. Transduction: conversin of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transofrming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells. Into neural impulses our brain can interpretPsychophysics: the study of relationships between the physical characaristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them ThresholdsHow do absolute thresholds and difference thresholds differ? -To some kinds of stimuli, we are sensitive, to some we are not. Everyone has a unique absolute threshold for stimuli to determine what is sensed. Absolute Threshold: the minimum stimulus energy needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time -detecting a weak stimulus, or signal (such as hearing test tone), depends not only on its strength but also on our psychological state-our experience, expectations, motivations, and alertness. -Signal detection theory predicts when we will detect weak signals. Signal detection theorists seek to understand why people respond differently to the same stimuli, and why the same person’s reactions vary as circumstances change. Signal Detection theory: a theory predicting how and when we d etecty the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise).