International Cooperation

International Cooperation - Jaworski 1 Zachary Jaworski...

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Jaworski 1 Zachary Jaworski Global Governance Professor Edwards September 29, 2007 International Cooperation After close examination of the stature of our international system, it can be concluded that although liberalism puts forth very optimistic ideals regarding International cooperation with the use of ‘low politics’, it is flawed due to the instability of multinational cooperation. Therefore, it is apparent that our international community rests within a realm of realism, where ‘high politics’ enforce and maintain International cooperation. When drawing this conclusion, it is imperative to recognize the important factors that either inhibit or promote International cooperation. It is also equally important to (i) recognize different theories (such as liberalism and realism), (ii) analyze different political game situations (such as Prisoners Dilemma, Chicken, and Stag theory), and (iii) determine the effectiveness of cooperation in the International community by close analysis of all variables involved. As described by Karns and Mingst, the “Liberal theory holds that human nature is basically good and that people can improve the moral and materials of their existence.”(Karns, Mingst, p. 35) Liberalism is most associated with democracy and market capitalism, and emphasizes multinational cooperation. Liberal scholars believe that cooperation is made possible because of two important factors. (1) “They view the international system as a context within which multiple interactions occur and where various actors learn from the interactions.”(Karns, Mingst p. 37) This essentially refers
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Jaworski 2 to the iteration of cooperation among states. This means that once states initiate cooperation, they begin to adhere to “norms” in the future, which insures further cooperation due to common interests. Another factor which is believed to advance the liberal ideology is the (2) “expectation that mutual interests will increase with greater interdependence, knowledge, communication, and the spread of democratic values.” (Karns, Mingst p.37) Kenneth Oye describes this as reciprocity, or a mutual friendship characterized by each state’s dependence on one another. He goes on to state that reciprocity “promotes cooperation by establishing a direct connection between an actors’ present behavior, and anticipated future benefits.” (Oye) It is in these situations where the hope of iterated relations is enhanced, and the system relies on low politics or soft law, which “begins once legal arrangements are weakened along one or more dimensions of obligation, precision, and delegation. .. [Soft law] allows states to adapt their commitments to their particular situations, rather than trying to accommodate divergent national circumstances within a single text.”(Abbot and Snidal) This means that as oppose to high politics (hard law), there are no strict guidelines or laws to ensure
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International Cooperation - Jaworski 1 Zachary Jaworski...

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