Insulin fsh fox k m et al molecular endocrinology

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Unformatted text preview: ide bonds C-Peptide helps the disulphide bonds form! Insulin FSH Fox K M et al. Molecular Endocrinology 2001;15:378-389 Steroid Hormones Synthesized only from cholesterol Made on demand -NOT STORED IN VESICLES LIKE Released from cell by simple diffusion PEPTIDE HORMONE Water insoluble (bound to carriers in blood) Long half life Cytoplasm or nucleus receptors (but in some cases, also act on plasma membrane receptors) -They also cause intracellular signalling like peptide hormones Major pathways in steroid biosynthesis THE POINT TO TAKE HOME: (This slide and next) -This diagram might be on the e xam: It would highlight an e nzyme and ask what would h appen if it is not working -Everything upstream would b e increased, and everything downstream would decrease -What would we see as s ymptoms in a patient that h as this happening? -Know the hormones with t he descriptions under them (Better on next slide) Glucose Homeostasis Stress (Hypertension too high) Blood P regulation Electrolyte Homeostasis Occurs in mitochondria and In a man: testicular atrophy, frontal bulbing smooth endoplasmic reticulum From: www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/steroidogenesis.html 3 t hings happen in the mitochondria: 1. Cholesterol --> Pregnenoleone (STEP 1) 2. Production of Cortisol 3. Production of Aldosterone -ALDOSTERONE: Too much aldosterone: High Blood Pressure -CORTISOL: Too much cortisol: High Glucose, Over weight, Immune Problems (Freq. Infections) -ESTRADIOL: High Estrogen in a Male: Breast development, shrinking of testicles, lose hair on front of h ead -TESTOSTERONE (DHT): High DHT in Female: Hair growth on the face, cessation of menstruation, o ver weight Type of hormone made depends on the which enzymes are present in the cell -Each layer is responsible for producing a different hormone "G,F,R from outside in" 1 2 3 KNOW: Which layer produces which hormone: Zona Reticularis: Androgens Zona Fasciculata: Cortisol Zona Glomerulosa: Aldosterone -ACTH from the Pituitary will stimulate this gland to produce h ormones MEDULLA: Produces NE and E Steroid hormones metabolized by P450 enzymes Steroids are processed by P450 Enzymes --> Oxidized --> Released into the bile that is produced by the liver Metabolized by P450 enzymes. Ie. CYP450 Oxidation of steroids form bile acids Bile acids secreted from liver into duodenum Amine Hormones PEPTIDE HORMONES: Work on the surface STEROID HORMONES: Work on the surface, cytosol and nucleus Synthesized only from tryptophan or tyrosine Tryptophan derivative: Circadian Rhythm 1. Melatonin (behaves like peptides or steroids) -Increases at night Tyrosine derivatives: -Refers to the fact that they bind to 1 Catecholamines (behave like peptides)receptors on the cell membrane 2 Thyroid hormones (behave like steroids) -Because they enter the cell and bind to a receptor that sits in the cytosol or nucleus -Can directly affect...
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