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Unformatted text preview: Ancient and Medieval Philosophy notes. TIMELINE: Ancient world: Myth Philosophy science Medieval World: Philosophy & Faith – with Augustine. Previous to Augustine there was a separation of the currents of philosophy and the currents of religion. To Augustine this was not enough and so he put the two together which began the new mode of philosophy. At this time philosophy splits into two camps; Plato and Aristotle. Plato: no trust in the senses. Descartes Aristotle: All must come from the senses. Hume The middle ages of philosophy ends when Descartes cries out for a separation of philosophy and religion again. PRE-SOCRATICS Primarily Materialists; looking for some primal stuff that was the essence of all things and that would explain everything. Most important of pre-socratics: Parmenides. Parmenides is the central pre-socratic figure, and it is to him that Plato in particular responds. Before Socrates the emphasis laid heavily on Cosmology, which attempted to explain the essence and origin of all things in terms of “nature”. Socrates switched this emphasis onto Ethics. Socrates thought that finding this primal substance explained nothing. Socrates student Plato took over Socrates ethical teachings, and was using these teachings to explain the war. Aristotle splits from the more idealist, Plato, because of their two concepts of the good. And this is how we get the two different schools of thought, Idealism, and Empiricism. (((((( Hesiod, Theogany Online )(The Milesians)))))))))) What’s the main issue for them? THEOGANY • Hesiod invokes the Olympian muses to give him knowledge of the beginning of the world. And inspiration rather than an explanation or scientific empiricism. • The model does not involve time until very deep into it’s process. • The entire model (excepting the self creation) is modeled after procreation. PRE-SOCRATICS Always problematic because we do not contain any of their original writings. All of our evidence is fragmented. This makes interpretation extremely difficult because we know nothing of the context of the fragments. Our three main characters for finding pre-socratic writings are Plato Aristotle and Simplicius. The most important feature of the pre-socratic thinkers is the concept of moving philosophy away from theology and towards naturalism. This turn finally stops multiplying the problem. Hesiod’s concept simply multiplied the amount of things that needed to be explained. Thales finally begins a reduction of things to be explained. There is a single universal principle in the universe, which is water. ((((((((TO HAVE BEEN READ)))(((((((Jordan 3 – 33))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))0 Of which made Principle< Underlying Substance Why: moistness is the characteristic of life (seed) and the universe has movement....
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PHIL 30301 taught by Professor Fredosso during the Spring '08 term at Notre Dame.
- Spring '08