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psych 102 lecture notes for midterm 2

psych 102 lecture notes for midterm 2 - Stereotyping and...

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Stereotyping and Prejudice How did Jane Eliot induce prejudice among the children in her class? Stereotype Beliefs and expectations about members of a social group Can be positive or negative Prejudice & Discrimination Prejudice : Negative attitudes or affect towards members of specific social groups Discrimination : Negative behavior towards members of a particular social group Where does prejudice come from? What causes prejudice? Cognitive sources Socio-cultural sources Group conflict and competition Emotional needs (Social Identity Theory) Terror management Personality Cognitive mechanisms underlying prejudice Stereotypes begin with social categorization Social categorization : The process of classifying people according to particular characteristics leads to ingroup bias outgroup homogeneity bias exaggeration of similarities within groups and differences between groups How do stereotypes develop? How are stereotypes maintained? Illusory Correlations Tendency to overestimate the strength of a relationship between two distinctive or unusual events Social-cultural sources of prejudice: Social inequalities Socialization, Conformity
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Institutional supports Competition as a Source Of Prejudice Realistic conflict theory : Prejudice stems from competition among social groups over valued resources Robber’s Cave Study (Sherif, 1961) Development of an ingroup Intergroup competition for scarce resources Reducing intergroup conflict Emotional sources of prejudice Frustration-aggression theory Social identity theory (Tajfel) We have both personal and social sources of identity Our self-esteem depends on intergroup comparisons To feel pride, must see ingroup as superior to other groups Putting other groups down can elevate our self-esteem Leads to Ingroup bias Minimal group studies Terror Management as a source of prejudice Terror Management Theory We have the intellectual abilities to comprehend that we will die, and that causes terror We develop a cultural worldview (our attitudes, religious beliefs, values, etc.) to manage the terror When others do not share our beliefs, terror is increased Increased terror may lead to rejection of dissimilar others and to seeking affiliation with ingroup Reminding people of what they are most frightened of (death), should
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