The Bill of Rights:The first 10 amendments to the U. S. Constitution are the Bill of Rights1.
COURT CASESSchenck v. United States(1919)Freedom of speech can be limited during wartime. The government can restrict expressions that “would create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent.”Abrams v. United States(1919)The First Amendment did not protect printing leaflets urging to resist the war effort, calling for a general strike, and advocating violent revolution.Debs v. United States(1919)The First Amendment did not protect an anti-war speech designed to obstruct recruiting.Gitlow v. New York(1925)The Supreme Court applied protection of free speech to the states through the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment..Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire(1942)The First Amendment did not protect “fighting words” which, by being said, cause injury or cause an immediate breach of the peace. West Virginia v. Barnette(1943)The West Virginia Board’s policy requiring students and teachers to recite the Pledge of Allegiance was unconstitutional. Reversing Minersville v. Gobitas (1940), the Court held government cannot “force citizens to confess by word or act their faith” in matters of opinion.United States v. O’Brien(1968)The First Amendment did not protect burning draft cards in protest of the Vietnam War as a form of symbolic speech.Tinker v. Des Moines(1969) The Court ruled that students wearing black armbands to protest the Vietnam War was “pure speech,” or symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment.2