We the PeopleAN INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN POLITICSE L E V E N T H E S S E N T I A L S E D I T I O N
THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 2016Hillary Clinton (Democrat) margin of victoryTotal electoral votes: 232Donald Trump (Republican) margin of victoryTotal electoral votes: 306<5%5–10%>10%<5%5–10%>10%Alaska(3)Hawaii(4)Washington(12)Oregon(7)California(55)Nevada(6)Utah(6)New Mexico(5)Texas(38)Kan(6Nebraska(5)Wyoming(3)Colorado(9)Arizona(11)South Dakota(3)North Dakota(3)Montana(3)Idaho(4)ONOTE: As of December 1, 2016, the Democrats were pursuing recounts in Michigan, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
nsas6)Mississippi(6)Alabama(9)aIowa(6)Wisconsin(10)Minnesota(10)Illinois(20)aKentucky(8)Indiana(11)Michigan(16)Tennessee(11)Virginia(13)Florida(29)Maine(3 votes to Clinton, 1 vote to Trump)New York(29)WestVirginia(5)Louisiana(8)Arkansas(6)Missouri(10)SouthCarolina(9)Georgia(16)North Carolina(15)Pennsylvania(20)Ohio(18)Oklahoma(7)Maryland (10)District of Columbia (3)Delaware (3)New Jersey (14)Vermont (3)Rhode Island (4)Connecticut (7)Massachusetts (11)New Hampshire (4)
We the PeopleAN INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN POLITICSBW. W. NORTON & COMPANY NEW YORK LONDONBenjamin GinsbergTHE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITYTheodore J. LowiCORNELL UNIVERSITYMargaret WeirBROWN UNIVERSITYCaroline J. TolbertUNIVERSITY OF LOWARobert J. SpitzerSUNY CORTLANDE L E V E N T H E S S E N T I A L S E D I T I O N
To Teresa SpitzerSandy, Cindy, and Alex GinsbergAngele, Anna, and Jason LowiNicholas ZieglerDavid, Jackie, Eveline, and Ed Dowling
Preface xxiAcknowledgments xxiiiPART IFoundations1 lIntroduction: The Citizen and Government 2Government Affects Our Lives Every Day5Trust in Government Has Declined7Political Efficacy Means People Can Make a Difference7Citizenship Is Based on Political Knowledge and Participation8“Digital Citizenship” Is the Newest Way to Participate9Government Is Made Up of the Institutions and Procedures by Which People Are Ruled9Different Forms of Government Are Defined by Power and Freedom9Limits on Governments Encouraged Freedom10Expansion of Participation in America Changed the Political Balance11The Goal of Politics Is Having a Say in What Happens11The Identity of Americans Has Changed over Time12Immigration and Increasing Ethnic Diversity Have Long Caused Intense Debate13Today the Country Still Confronts the Question “Who Are Americans?”14l AMERICA SIDE BY SIDE Global Diversity 17America Is Built on the Ideas of Liberty, Equality, and Democracy19Liberty Means Freedom19Equality Means Treating People Fairly20Democracy Means That What the People Want Matters21American Political Values and Your Future21contentsix
l WHO PARTICIPATES? Who Participated in the 2012 Presidential Election? 23Key Terms26For Further Reading272 lThe Founding and the Constitution 28The First Founding: Ideals, Interests, and Conflicts31Narrow Interests and Political Conflicts Shaped the First Founding31British Taxes Hurt Colonial Economic Interests32Political Strife Radicalized the Colonists33