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Unformatted text preview: Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge 2016 U.S. Department of Transportation FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION Flight Standards Service ii Preface The Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge provides basic knowledge that is essential for pilots. This handbook introduces pilots to the broad spectrum of knowledge that will be needed as they progress in their pilot training. Except for the Code of Federal Regulations pertinent to civil aviation, most of the knowledge areas applicable to pilot certification are presented. This handbook is useful to beginning pilots, as well as those pursuing more advanced pilot certificates. Occasionally the word “must” or similar language is used where the desired action is deemed critical. The use of such language is not intended to add to, interpret, or relieve a duty imposed by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR). It is essential for persons using this handbook to become familiar with and apply the pertinent parts of 14 CFR and the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM). The AIM is available online at . The current Flight Standards Service airman training and testing material and learning statements for all airman certificates and ratings can be obtained from . This handbook supersedes FAA-H-8083-25A, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, dated 2008. This handbook is available for download, in PDF format, from . This handbook is published by the United States Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, Airman Testing Standards Branch, AFS-630, P.O. Box 25082, Oklahoma City, OK 73125. Comments regarding this publication should be sent, in email form, to the following address: [email protected] John S. Duncan Director, Flight Standards Service iii iv Acknowledgments The Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge was produced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with the assistance of Safety Research Corporation of America. The FAA wishes to acknowledge the following contributors: Mrs. Nancy A. Wright for providing imagery of a de Haviland DH-4 inaugural air mail flight (Chapter 1) The Raab Collection, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for images of the first pilot license (Chapter 1) Sandy Kenyon and Rod Magner (magicair.com) for photo of 1929 TravelAir 4000 (Chapter 1) Dr. Pat Veillette for information used on decision-making (Chapter 2) Adventure Seaplanes for photos of a ski and float training plane (Chapter 3) Jack Davis, Stearman Restorers Asociation, for photo of a 1941 PT-17 Army Air Corps trainer (Chapter 3) Michael J. Hoke, Abaris Training Resources, Inc., for images and information about composite aircraft (Chapter 3) Colin Cutler, Boldmethod, for images and content on the topic of ground effect (Chapter 5) Mark R. Korin, Alpha Systems, for images of AOA disaplys (Chapter 5) M. van Leeuwen ( ) for image of Piaggio P-180 (Chapter 6) Greg Richter, Blue Mountain Avionics, for autopilot information and imagery (Chapter 6) Mountain High E&S Company for various images provided regarding oxygen systems (Chapter 7) Jeff Callahan, Aerox, for image of MSK-AS Silicone Mask without Microphone (Chapter 7) Nonin Medical, Inc. for image of Onyx pulse oximeter (Chapter 7) Pilotfriend.com for photo of a TKS Weeping Wing (Chapter 7) Chelton Flight Systems for image of FlightLogic (Chapter 8) Avidyne Corporation for image of the Entegra (Chapter 8) Teledyne Controls for image of an air data computer (Chapter 8) Watson Industries, Inc. ( ) for image of Attitude and Heading Reference system (Chapter 8) Engineering Arresting Systems Corporation ( ) for EMAS imagery and EMASMAX technical digrams (Chapter 14) Caasey Rose and Jose Roggeveen (burningholesinthesky.wordpress.com) for flight checklist image (Chapter 14) Tim Murnahan for images of EMAS at Yeager Airport, Charleston, West Virginia, and EMAS arrested aircraft (Chapter 14) Cessna Aircraft Company, Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation, Eclipse Aviation Corporation, Garmin Ltd., The Boeing Company for images provided and used throughout the Handbook. Additional appreciation is extended to the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), the AOPA Air Safety Foundation, the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA), and the National Business Aviation Association (NBAA) for their technical support and input. Disclaimer: Information in Chapter 14 pertaining to Runway Incursion Avoidance was created using FAA orders, documents, and Advisory Circulars that were current at the date of publication. Users should not assume that all references are current and should check often for reference updates. v vi Table of Contents Preface....................................................................iii Acknowledgments..................................................v Table of Contents .................................................vii Chapter 1 Introduction To Flying.........................................1-1 Introduction....................................................................1-1 History of Flight.............................................................1-2 History of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) 1-3 Transcontinental Air Mail Route................................1-4 Federal Certification of Pilots and Mechanics ...........1-4 The Federal Aviation Act of 1958..............................1-6 Department of Transportation (DOT) ........................1-6 ATC Automation........................................................1-6 The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) Strike....................................1-6 The Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 .......................1-7 The Role of the FAA......................................................1-7 The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)....................1-7 Primary Locations of the FAA ...................................1-8 Field Offices ...........................................................1-8 Aviation Safety Inspector (ASI) ................................1-9 FAA Safety Team (FAASTeam)................................1-9 Obtaining Assistance from the FAA ..........................1-9 Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)...............1-9 Handbooks ............................................................1-10 Advisory Circulars (ACs) .....................................1-10 Flight Publications ................................................1-11 Pilot and Aeronautical Information .........................1-12 Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) ............................1-12 Safety Program Airmen Notification System (SPANS) ...............................................................1-14 Aircraft Classifications and Ultralight Vehicles ..........1-14 Pilot Certifications .......................................................1-16 Privileges: .............................................................1-16 Limitations:...........................................................1-17 Recreational Pilot .....................................................1-17 Privileges: .............................................................1-17 Limitations:...........................................................1-17 Private Pilot ..............................................................1-17 Commercial Pilot......................................................1-18 Airline Transport Pilot..............................................1-18 Selecting a Flight School ............................................1-18 How To Find a Reputable Flight Program ...............1-19 How To Choose a Certificated Flight Instructor (CFI).........................................................1-19 The Student Pilot .........................................................1-20 Basic Requirements..................................................1-20 Medical Certification Requirements.....................1-20 Becoming a Pilot..........................................................1-21 Knowledge and Skill Tests ..........................................1-21 Knowledge Tests ......................................................1-21 When To Take the Knowledge Test .....................1-22 Practical Test ............................................................1-22 When To Take the Practical Test..........................1-23 Who Administers the FAA Practical Tests?.........1-23 Role of the Certificated Flight Instructor .................1-23 Role of the Designated Pilot Examiner ...................1-24 Chapter Summary .......................................................1-24 Chapter 2 Aeronautical Decision-Making ...........................2-1 Introduction....................................................................2-1 History of ADM.............................................................2-2 Risk Management ..........................................................2-3 Crew Resource Management (CRM) and Single- Pilot Resource Management ..........................................2-4 Hazard and Risk.............................................................2-4 Hazardous Attitudes and Antidotes............................2-5 Risk.............................................................................2-6 Assessing Risk ........................................................2-6 Mitigating Risk .......................................................2-8 The PAVE Checklist .................................................2-8 P = Pilot in Command (PIC) ..................................2-8 A = Aircraft ............................................................2-8 V = EnVironment ...................................................2-9 E = External Pressures ............................................2-9 Human Factors .............................................................2-10 vii Human Behavior ..........................................................2-11 The Decision-Making Process .....................................2-12 Single-Pilot Resource Management (SRM) ...........2-13 The 5 Ps Check ........................................................2-13 The Plan ...............................................................2-14 The Plane .............................................................2-14 The Pilot ...............................................................2-14 The Passengers .....................................................2-14 The Programming ................................................2-15 Perceive, Process, Perform (3P) Model....................2-15 PAVE Checklist: Identify Hazards and Personal Minimums ..............................................2-15 CARE Checklist: Review Hazards and Evaluate Risks ......................................................2-16 TEAM Checklist: Choose and Implement Risk Controls ........................................................2-16 The DECIDE Model .............................................2-18 Detect (the Problem).............................................2-20 Estimate (the Need To React)...............................2-20 Choose (a Course of Action) ................................2-20 Identify (Solutions)...............................................2-20 Do (the Necessary Actions) ..................................2-20 Evaluate (the Effect of the Action) ......................2-20 Decision-Making in a Dynamic Environment ............2-21 Automatic Decision-Making ...................................2-21 Operational Pitfalls ...............................................2-21 Stress Management...................................................2-21 Use of Resources ......................................................2-21 Internal Resources ................................................2-23 External Resources ...............................................2-23 Situational Awareness..................................................2-24 Obstacles to Maintaining Situational Awareness.....2-24 Workload Management ........................................2-24 Managing Risks ....................................................2-25 Automation ..................................................................2-25 Results of the Study..................................................2-27 Equipment Use .........................................................2-27 Autopilot Systems.................................................2-27 Familiarity.............................................................2-27 Respect for Onboard Systems...............................2-29 Getting Beyond Rote Workmanship.....................2-29 Understand the Platform ......................................2-29 Managing Aircraft Automation ...............................2-29 Information Management .....................................2-30 Enhanced Situational Awareness .............................2-30 Automation Management .........................................2-31 Risk Management.....................................................2-31 Chapter Summary .......................................................2-32 viii Chapter 3 Aircraft Construction ..........................................3-1 Introduction....................................................................3-1 Aircraft Design, Certification, and Airworthiness.........3-2 A Note About Light Sport Aircraft ............................3-2 Lift and Basic Aerodynamics.........................................3-2 Major Components.........................................................3-3 Fuselage......................................................................3-3 Wings .........................................................................3-3 Empennage .................................................................3-6 Landing Gear..............................................................3-7 The Powerplant...........................................................3-7 Subcomponents ..............................................................3-8 Types of Aircraft Construction ......................................3-8 Truss Structure ...........................................................3-8 Semimonocoque .........................................................3-9 Composite Construction.............................................3-9 History ....................................................................3-9 Advantages of Composites ...................................3-10 Disadvantages of Composites...............................3-10 Fluid Spills on Composites...................................3-11 Lightning Strike Protection...................................3-11 The Future of Composites ....................................3-12 Instrumentation: Moving into the Future ....................3-12 Control Instruments .................................................3-13 Navigation Instruments ...........................................3-13 Global Positioning System (GPS)................................3-13 Chapter Summary ........................................................3-13 Chapter 4 Principles of Flight ..............................................4-1 Introduction....................................................................4-1 Structure of the Atmosphere ..........................................4-1 Air is a Fluid ..............................................................4-2 Viscosity .................................................................4-2 Friction....................................................................4-2 Pressure...................................................................4-3 Atmospheric Pressure.................................................4-3 Pressure Altitude ........................................................4-4 Density Altitude .........................................................4-4 Effect of Pressure on Density .................................4-4 Effect of Temperature on Density ..........................4-4 Effect of Humidity (Moisture) on Density .............4-5 Theories in the Production of Lift..................................4-5 Newton’s Basic Laws of Motion................................4-5 Bernoulli’s Principle of Differential Pressure ............4-6 Airfoil Design ................................................................4-6 Low Pressure Above ..................................................4-7 High Pressure Below ..................................................4-8 Pressure Distribution ..................................................4-8 Airfoil Behavior .........................................................4-8 A Third Dimension ........................................................4-9 Chapter Summary ..........................................................4-9 Chapter 5 Aerodynamics of Flight.......................................5-1 Forces Acting on the Aircraft ........................................5-1 Thrust .........................................................................5-2 Lift..............................................................................5-3 Lift/Drag Ratio........................................................5-5 Drag ............................................................................5-6 Parasite Drag...........................................................5-6 Induced Drag ..........................................................5-7 Weight ........................................................................5-8 Wingtip Vortices............................................................5-8 Formation of Vortices ................................................5-8 Avoiding Wake Turbulence .......................................5-9 Ground Effect...............................................................5-11 Axes of an Aircraft.......................................................5-12 Moment and Moment Arm ..........................................5-13 Aircraft Design Characteristics ...................................5-14 Stability ....................................................................5-14 Static Stability.......................................................5-14 Dynamic Stability .................................................5-14 Longitudinal Stability (Pitching) ..........................5-15 Lateral Stability (Rolling).....................................5-17 Directional Stability (Yawing) .............................5-19 Free Directional Oscillations (Dutch Roll) ..............5-20 Spiral Instability .......................................................5-20 Effect of Wing Planform .............................................5-20 Aerodynamic Forces in Flight Maneuvers...................5-22 Forces in Turns.........................................................5-22 Forces in Climbs.......................................................5-23 Forces in Descents....................................................5-24 Stalls ............................................................................5-25 Angle of Attack Indicators...........................................5-26 Basic Propeller Principles ............................................5-28 Torque and P-Factor.................................................5-30 Torque Reaction .......................................................5-31 Corkscrew Effect......................................................5-31 Gyroscopic Action....................................................5-31 Asymmetric Loading (P-Factor) ..............................5-32 Load Factors.................................................................5-33 Load Factors in Aircraft Design...............................5-33 Load Factors in Steep Turns.....................................5-34 Load Factors and Stalling Speeds ............................5-34 Load Factors and Flight Maneuvers.........................5-36 Vg Diagram ..............................................................5-37 Rate of Turn.........................................
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