INE 3 - Radiation and Radiation Safety Intro to NEEP Dr....

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Radiation and Radiation Safety Intro to NEEP Dr. Peter F. Caracappa, CHP Radiation Safety Officer Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
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Topics Types of Radiation Radioactive Decay Radiation Units Biological Effects of Radiation Radiation Sources and Uses Radiation Protection Instrumentation
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What is Health Physics ? “...a profession devoted to the protection of people and the environment from the harmful effects of radiation, thus providing for its utilization for the benefit of mankind.” – Health Physics Society 1989
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What is Health Physics ? Measurement and control of radiation and radiation exposures Assessing biological damage from radiation exposures Monitoring radioactivity in the environment Design radiologically safe equipment
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Types of Radiation Natural Sources Alpha Beta Gamma Others Man-made sources X-rays
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Natural Sources Alpha radiation Consists of two protons and two neutrons – same as a helium nucleus
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Natural Sources Beta radiation high energy electron ejected from the nucleus
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Natural Sources Gamma radiation Photon from the nucleus of an atom as it goes from an excited state to a lower or ground state Always follows another type of radioactive decay
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Natural Sources
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Man-Made Sources X-rays X-rays are photons (like gamma rays) but come from the electron cloud rather than the nucleus Some x-rays are produced naturally, but most come from machines Electrons are accelerated into a target, and photons are produced
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Man-Made Sources X-rays Anode - “target” Cathode - “filament” Electron Beam X-Rays High Voltage
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Radioactive Decay Radioactive Decay occurs when nucleus is energetically unstable Random process No way to tell when a particular atom will decay Each atom has the same probability of decaying in any particular moment When dealing with a large number of atoms, we can predict the behavior
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Radioactive Decay Half-Life – the amount of time it takes for the activity to decrease by one-half A = A 0 e - λ t λ =0.693/ τ 1/2
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Decay Chains Most heavy naturally occurring radioactive
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ENGR 1961 taught by Professor Carracappa during the Spring '08 term at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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INE 3 - Radiation and Radiation Safety Intro to NEEP Dr....

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