Cardiac Physiology Notes - Cardiac Physiology Notes Circulatory System o three basic components heart serves as a pump that establishes the pressure

Cardiac Physiology Notes - Cardiac Physiology Notes...

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Cardiac Physiology Notes Circulatory System o three basic components: heart: serves as a pump that establishes the pressure gradient needed for blood to flow to tissues blood vessels: passageways through which blood is distributed from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the heart every cell in the body needs blood (except the skin you can see because it is actually dead skin cells) blood: transport medium within which materials being transported are dissolved or suspended Blood is just a medium. It isn’t important itself, what’s in it is o Pulmonary circulation: closed loop of vessels carrying blood between the heart and lungs o Systemic circulation: circuit of vessels carrying blood between the heart and other body systems. o FIGURE 9.1 – circulatory system Pulmonary – has to do with lungs; Systematic - everything but the lungs No cell in your body is more than 100 microns away from a capillary (blood supply) Walls of capillaries are only a single cell thick so diffusion of nutrients can take place o Anatomy of the heart Hollow, muscular organ about the size of a clenched fist Positioned between two bony structures: sternum and vertebrae Position makes it physically possible to manually drive blood from the heart when it’s not pumping effectively (CPR) Since blood (liquid) can’t be compressed, it is forced to the next of the four chambers of the heart o The heart is a duel pump : The heart is divided into right and left halves and has four chambers Right and left sides of the heart function as two separate pumps Atria : o Upper chambers o Receive blood returning from the body and transfer it to lower chambers Ventricles : o Lower chambers which pump blood from the heart Right side of heart: blue deoxygenated blood Left side of heart: deep red oxygenated blood Arteries : carry blood away from the ventricles to tissue Veins : vessels that return blood from tissue to the atria Septum : continuous muscular partition that prevents mixture of blood from the two sides of the heart
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Circuit of blood flow o The venae cava are veins returning blood to the right atrium. Superior vena cava comes from vessels above the heart. Inferior vena cava comes from the vessels below the heart. Oxygen has been extracted from this blood. Carbon dioxide has been added to it. This blood is pumped from the right atrium to the right ventricle and exits through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. The lungs add oxygen to the blood received from the right side of the heart. Carbon dioxide is removed from this blood. This blood flows through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium of the heart. This oxygen rich blood is pumped from the left ventricle through the aorta , the largest artery in the human body. ( Larger diameter, more blood. Any damage done to the aorta is considered lethal ) o FIGURE 9.2: all the stuff written above Heart Valves (4 major) o Heart valves prevent backflow of blood o Atrioventricular (AV) valves
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