unit3lectures - Unit 3 Lecture 16 ?Madison and the War of...

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Unit 3 Lecture 16 ?Madison and the War of 1812 I. Problems with Neutrality A. Non-Intercourse Act (March 1, 1809) - opens up non-Brit & non-French ports; still no trade w E & F - this hit France harder than US because of supremacy of Brit navy - England moves to ease tough line against US; leads to Erskine Agreement B. Erskine Fiasco (June 10, 1809-Aug 9, 1809) Brit Min to US David Erskine makes agreement w Madison to rescend ORDERS OF COUNCIL Madison thus lifts non-intercourse ? but Brit disavow agreement, saying Erskine had no authority Aug 9 ? Non-Intercourse restored (but this brief hiatus wiped out fruits of TJ?s embargo) C. Macon?s Bill # 2 (May 1810) ? Congress reopens trade with all, but with a caught 22 - if either side agrees to stop violating our neutral rights, and if the other side after a time period refuses to do likewise, then the US will return non-intercourse with the violating power Napoleon?s response ? May 1810 ? agrees to stop seizing ships (although he never stopped) Madison?s response ? Nov 1810 - accepts Napoleon at his word; tells Eng to do same or face consequences Mar 2, 1811 ? deadline passes; Non-intercourse resumed against England II. Other Factors in War Declaration A. Election of War Congress members ? many new faces in the 12 th Congress, including Henry Clay (elected Speaker of House) and John Calhoun Characteristics of new leaders: young, bold, patriotic; tired of tells of parents of revolutionary leaders ? they will become known as the War Hawks B. Indian Menace Tecumseh?s Conspiracy ? attempt of Tecumseh and his half-brother The Prophet to rally the Native Americans together in alliance against US encroachments on Indian land Nov 7, 1811- Battle of Tippecanoe ? Gen Wm Harrison defeats Tecumseh at Tippecanoe British guns found after Indian retreat; US blames frontier problems in the Brits The idea emergences ? only way to solve problem is to remove Brits from Canada (ie, Felix Grundy of Tenn ? a War Hawk who had 3 brothers killed in Indian raids) C. Impressment ? continues (perhaps as many as 10,000 US citizens impressed) D. Right of Freedom of the Seas ? this hurt West as well as East because agricultural western products were damed up under the Orders of Council E. Territorial Expansion ? hopes for Canada and Florida (in South, US seizes West Florida )
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III. The War Declaration A. Background --- April 1, 1812 ? Madison secretly tells Congress plan; reopens trade for 60 days to allow US shippers safe sailing home B. War Message ? June 1, 1812 ? Madison sends war message to Congress C. Votes for War House ? 79-49 (90% Republicans say Yes; 0% Federalists) Senate ? 19-13 Where do votes come from? House: West 9-0 South 31-3 Mid 27-21 NE 12-20 D. Discussion about war declaration against England why: # of ship seizures since 1803: France 558; England 917 but ? what gains can come from victory against England ? CANADA; nothing to gain w France
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course HIS 163 taught by Professor Terrybilhartz during the Fall '08 term at Sam Houston State University.

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unit3lectures - Unit 3 Lecture 16 ?Madison and the War of...

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