Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 4.1 Basic Components To get a task...

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Chapter 4 4.1: Basic Components To get a task done by a computer, we need two things o A computer program that specifies what the computer must do to complete the task o The computer itself to execute the task A program consists of a set of instructions. o The smallest piece of work specified in a computer program. o The computer either carries out the work specified by an instruction or it does not. Neumann o Model o Five parts Memory Processing Unit Input Output Control Unit o Computer program is contained in the computer memory 4.1.1: Memory o Address space: locations o Addressability: bits o 256 megs: 2^28 locs, byte addressable o To read the contents of a memory location, we first place the address of that location in the memory’s address register (MAR). o The information stored in the location having that address will be placed in the Memory’s Data Register (MDR). o To write a value in a memory location, we first write the address of the memory location into the MAR, and the value to be stored in the MDR. o We then interrogate the computer’s memory with the WE enabled. 4.12: Processing Unit o The processing of info is carried out here. o The simplest PU is the ALU: Arithmetic and Logic Unit Perform basic arithmetic o The size of the quantities normally processed by the ALU is often referred to as the word length of the computer, and each element is referred to as a word. o In the LC3, the ALU processes 16-bit quantities (word length of 16) o Each ISA has its own word length o Temporary storage in the form of registers are used o Size of each register is identical to the size of values processed o Eight registers = R0-R7
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4.13: Input and Output o AKA Peripherals o Two basic i/o: keyboard, monitor. 4.14: Control Unit
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CS 310 taught by Professor Fussell during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 4.1 Basic Components To get a task...

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