35 student Urinary 2007

35 student Urinary 2007 - Chapter 35 Urinary System 35.1...

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Chapter 35 Urinary System 35.1 What Are the Basic Functions of Urinary Systems? p. 708 35.2 What Are Some Examples of Invertebrate Excretory Systems? p. 708 35.3 What Are the Functions of Vertebrate Urinary Systems? p. 709 35.4 What Are the Structures and Functions of the Human Urinary System? p. 710 35.5 How Do Mammalian Kidneys Help Maintain Homeostasis? p. 715
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Section 35.1 Outline 35.1 What Are the Basic Functions of Urinary Systems?
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Basic Functions The urinary system ( excretory system ) maintains the chemical composition of the blood and extracellular fluid Important for maintaining cellular metabolism
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Basic Functions The urinary system assists in excretion (the removal of unwanted substances from the body) Examples: non-gaseous waste products (such as urea), excess water, excess vitamins, and some drugs
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Basic Functions Urinary system functions are performed through three basic processes 1. Blood (or equivalent fluid) is filtered, removing water and small dissolved substances 2. Nutrients are selectively reabsorbed from filtrate 3. Any remaining water and dissolved wastes are excreted from the body
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Section 35.2 Outline 35.2 What Are Some Examples of Invertebrate Excretory Systems? Flame Cells Filter Fluids in Flatworms Malpighian Tubules Filter the Blood of Insects Nephridia Filter Coelomic Fluid in Earthworms
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Flame Cells in Flatworms Protonephridia were likely the first excretory structures to evolve in animals
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Flame Cells in Flatworms Protonephridia are a network of branching tubes that end blindly in flame cells Single-celled bulbs with beating cilia that extend into the hollow portion
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Flame Cells in Flatworms Flame cell and protonephridia function Flame cell cilia beat and filter fluid from body Fluid deposited into the protonephridial tubes Fluid flows through protonephridial tubes, where some nutrients are absorbed and additional wastes are added Remaining water and wastes are eliminated via excretory pores
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Malpighian Tubules In Insects Insects have an open circulatory system blood fills a body cavity (hemocoel) bathes tissues directly Excretory systems consist of malpighian tubules extend outward from intestine end within blood of the hemocoel
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Malpighian Tubules In Insects Wastes and salts move from blood into the tubules by diffusion and active transport, and water follows by osmosis In the intestine and rectum Important salts are secreted back into blood by active transport Water follows by osmosis Insects can produce very concentrated urine, excreted with feces
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Nephridia in Earthworms Nephridia are simple kidneys Used by earthworms, mollusks, and several other invertebrates
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Nephridia in Earthworms Nephridium function Coelomic fluid collects wastes and nutrients from the blood and tissues Coelomic fluid enters a funnel-shaped opening ( nephrostome )
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Nephridia in Earthworms Nephridium function (continued)
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35 student Urinary 2007 - Chapter 35 Urinary System 35.1...

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