Digestion

Digestion - Digestion and Nutrition Chapter 34 Outline What...

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Digestion and Nutrition Chapter 34 Outline What Nutrients Do Animals Need? p. 686 How Is Digestion Accomplished? p. 692 How Do Humans Digest Food? p. 695
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Section 34.1 Outline What Nutrients Do Animals Need? Energy Is Derived from Nutrients and Measured in Calories Lipids Include Fats, Phospholipids, and Cholesterol Carbohydrates Are a Source of Quick Energy Amino Acids Form the Building Blocks of Proteins
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Section 34.1 Outline What Nutrients Do Animals Need? (continued) Minerals Are Elements Required by the Body Vitamins Play Many Roles in Metabolism The Human Body Is About Two-Thirds Water Nutritional Guidelines Help People Obtain a Balanced Diet
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Nutrients All foods contain nutrients needed for survival Nutrition describes the process of acquiring and processing nutrients in useable form
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Nutrients Nutrients fall into five major categories Lipids Carbohydrates Proteins Minerals Vitamins
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Energy Obtained from Nutrients Most energy used by cells is derived from carbohydrates and fats These molecules are broken down and their subunits are broken down during cellular respiration Energy is released and is captured in ATP
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Energy Obtained from Nutrients The energy in nutrients is measured in calories A calorie is the amount of energy required to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius Food calorie content is measured in units of 1000 calories ( kilocalories ), also known as Calories (capital C)
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Energy Obtained from Nutrients The average human burns 70 Calories per hour at rest, and up to 20 Calories per minute during exercise
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Energy Obtained from Nutrients The amount of exercise needed to “work off” different types of food is shown in Table 34-1 , p. 686
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Lipids Lipids are essential nutrients Lipids are diverse and contain long chains of carbon atoms and are insoluble in water
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Lipids Specialized lipids can be synthesized by some animals, others require essential fatty acids (lipid building blocks) from their food
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Lipids Three principal types of lipids Triglycerides (fats used as an energy source) Phospholipids (component of cell membranes) Cholesterol (component of cell membranes, sex hormones, and bile)
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Animals Store Energy as Fat When an animal’s diet provides excess energy, the excess is stored as fat 3600 Calories are stored in each pound of fat
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Animals Store Energy as Fat Fats are excellent energy storage molecules A concentrated energy source compared to proteins and carbohydrates Hydrophobic lipids avoid excess water accumulation in body
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Animals Store Energy as Fat Animals that maintain elevated body temperatures use fats to insulate their bodies
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Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are used as an energy source, but can have structural uses as well Carbohydrates are broken down into sugars (usually glucose) which are used to make energy
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Carbohydrates Carbohydrates consist of Monosaccharide sugars
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Ward during the Fall '07 term at Shepherd.

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Digestion - Digestion and Nutrition Chapter 34 Outline What...

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