Respiration System

Respiration System - Chapter 33 Respiration 33.1 Why...

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Chapter 33 Respiration 33.1 Why Exchange Gases? p. 670 33.2 What Are Some Evolutionary Adaptations for Gas Exchange? p. 670 33.3 How Does the Human Respiratory System Work? p. 675
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Why Exchange Gases? Gas exchange supports cellular respiration
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Why Exchange Gases? Gas exchange in vertebrates – O 2 is inhaled into lungs, deposited in blood, and transported to body cells – O 2 is used in cellular respiration to convert the energy in nutrients into ATP, generating CO 2 as a waste product – Blood transports CO 2 from tissues to lungs – CO 2 released from lungs during exhalation
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Section 33.2 Outline 33.2 What Are Some Evolutionary Adaptations for Gas Exchange? Some Animals in Moist Environments Lack Specialized Respiratory Structures Respiratory Systems Facilitate Gas Exchange by Diffusion Terrestrial Animals Have Internal Respiratory Structures
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Common Respiratory Features All animal respiratory systems share three features (1) Respiratory surface must be moist so gases can diffuse across cell membranes (2) Cells lining respiratory surface are thin to optimizes gas diffusion (3) The respiratory surface area must be large to allow for adequate gas exchange
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Animals in Moist Environments Some animals in moist environments lack specialized respiratory structures
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Animals in Moist Environments Gases diffuse short distances in smaller animals to reach cells Gas exchange optimized by long, flat bodies with greater surface area Examples: flatworms
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Animals in Moist Environments Low energy demands translate into larger animals that rely on their moist body surface for gas exchange – Larger size possible because less O 2 needed by cells Example: sea jellies
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Animals in Moist Environments Some animals bring the environment close to all their cells – Allows greater exposure of cells to O 2 Example: sponges
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Animals in Moist Environments Other animals combine large skin surface area with well-developed circulation for delivery to cells – Skin has many capillaries that carry O 2 to internal body tissues – This arrangement sustains a favorable O 2 concentration gradient between skin and blood Example: earthworm
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Gas Exchange Respiratory systems facilitate more effective exchange of gases between the environment and an animal’s body
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Gas Exchange Respiratory systems alternate bulk flow of air/water and diffusion of gases Bulk Flow: describes when fluids or gases move through spaces from high pressure to low pressure
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Gas Exchange In mammals Air or water moves past respiratory surface by bulk flow (down pressure gradient) – O 2 and CO 2 are exchanged by diffusion Gases transported to/from tissues by bulk flow Gases exchanged with tissues (cells) by diffusion
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Ward during the Fall '07 term at Shepherd.

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Respiration System - Chapter 33 Respiration 33.1 Why...

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