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Unformatted text preview: Midterm 2: Exam Review PSC 140: Winter 2008 CHAPTER 7: EARLY EXPERIENCE AND LATER LIFE What is meant by the term primacy? Be familiar with examples that CONFIRM the notion of primacy and those that DISCONFIRM it. Primacy is the belief that children’s early experiences determine the course of their later development. Be familiar with the developmental outcomes of secure vs. insecure attachment Infants will form an internal working model of relationships and use it to guide all future social relationships SECURE: preschool – make friends easily, handle stress well, good self esteem and self regulation, greater knowledge about emotions, empathy for others/ age 6+-warm and positive with parents, comfort with physical contact, good in school/ adults – express emotions, strong partnerships INSECURE: preschool – cant handle stress, overly dependent, lower emotion understanding/ age 6+ - mixture of affection, hostility, trouble with peers, socially avoidant/ adult – anxious, avoidant, fear abandonment, difficulty in forming relationships What factors promote secure attachment?- sensitive caregiving: understand infants signals, respond appropriately, not intrusive or over stimulating- easy infant temperament- optimal economic status- absence of depression- parent were securely attached- strong marital relationships- no abuse- no dead/ill parents- What are the main conclusions from studies on the effects of daycare in relation to language, attachment, and cognitive development?- LANGUAGE: - ATTACHMENT: some have reported higher avoidant attachment, - COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Why may the Strange Situation not be the best assessment for measuring attachment in babies who have frequent separations from the mother?- because the situation may not be so strange to an infant who is often left and could be healthy autonomy and greater understanding that mom will always return 1 Be able to identify variables that moderate the effect of daycare on development. - variables that influences the likelihood of positive or negative effects of daycare on development - quality and stability - age of child- hours in care- parental family stress related to SES- parental job satisfaction related to SES- quality of parent and child action when not in alternative care What are characteristics of high quality daycare?- clean spacious physical setting- developmentally appropriate toys- caregiver child ratio low- caregivers educated in Child dev.- Interactions- Continuity of caregiver How do beliefs in “optimal development” depend on the culture and living conditions of a particular group of people (e.g., poverty stricken areas of Brazil vs. U.S.)? Be familiar with Dennis’ (1973) main findings regarding the effects of low quality orphanages on the development of IQ. How is the outcome dependent upon the age of adoption? How do these findings on the importance of the timing of adoption related to Chisholm’s (1998) studies on the relationship between adoption age and development of secure attachment?relationship between adoption age and development of secure attachment?...
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- Spring '08