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PSC 152 midterm 2 review

PSC 152 midterm 2 review - Motivated Cognition Hot...

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Motivated Cognition Hot Cognition: information driven processes Cold Cognition: mental processes that are driven by our desires and emotions – goals and mood color our judgment Types of Goals: - directional: motivated for a particular outcome or judgment - accuracy: the desire to form an accurate judgment - closure: the desire to form a judgment quickly Motivated Skepticism (Directional): - Ditto and Lopez enzyme test - People who thought that they had the enzyme deficiency were more likely to think that test did not do a good enough job in measurement and waited longer for a response - Those who thought that they were enzyme efficient were less critical of the test Ingroup Overexclusion Effect (Accuracy): - measured how long people took to decide if the target was an ingroup or outgroup member - ingroup member had to have more traits – members were much more selective Closure Goals: - the desire to arrive at a clear conclusion - we have a need for closure - affect people’s criteria for arriving at a decision Need for Closure and Ingroup Bias: - ingroups provide social reality - especially important for people with need of high closure goals - manipulated need for closure and time pressure - measured liking and similarity with teammate Self Serving Schematic Representations: - Dunning says that motivation influences even our representations of concepts - Affects of schemas Self Serving Category Representations: - we define categories in self serving ways - i.e. a good daughter is what WE are Self Serving Trait Definitions: - we define traits in this way too - i.e. What does it mean to be dependable?
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Self Serving Performance Standards” - Beauregard and Dunning: - gave student and intelligence tests and their scores from that test and their SATs - gave a stimulus paragraph about another person and their scores - participants who received failing scores also said that the person in the paragraph did not fare well - we are motivated to see them as similar Positive Illusions about the Self: - we are unrealistically positive about ourselves - our flaws are common, but our strengths are unique - Magical thinking – exaggerated perception of self control - The Better than Average Effect: HS seniors rated themselves as above average – Why? Because we engage in bias evaluation of ourselves Overly Optimistic Predictions: - exams - how long to complete assignments - success Temporal Proximity: - asked how you will perform on an exam that is: 1 month away, 1 day away, already taken - Sheppard found: subjects think that they will do best when it is one month away - Lowest when finding out score 3 seconds before – brace for the worst - Role of Self Esteem: lower for those who have low self esteem Exaggerated Perceptions of Self Control: - gambling - Langer: lottery ticket study - People think they have control over chance events - Sold tickets for 1$ to employees - Some were allowed to choose tickets and others were just given one - Asked how much they would sell their ticket for - No choice: sold it for much lower than those who chose the ticket - Langer: betting study -
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