ART100%20Study%20Guide%20Exam%203 - ART 100 INTRODUCTION TO...

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ART 100 INTRODUCTION TO THE VISUAL ARTS Christensen, Inst. CONCEPTS, TERMS, AND INFORMATION FOR STUDY – PLEASE NOTE THIS IS A GENERAL OUTLINE FOR YOUR STUDY BENEFIT ONLY. YOU MUST ATTEND CLASS AND READ TEXT MATERIAL. SEE SYLLABUS FOR CALENDAR, COURSE OBJECTIVES, AND REQUIREMENTS. STUDY MATERIAL FOR EXAM 3 Romanesque Art, Gothic Art, Renaissance Art Romanesque refers to the art of the 11 th and 12 centuries in western Europe. At this time the monastery system was the most important one in the society. These communities of monks were self sufficient and stable relative to the turbulent times and the emerging feudal system. The monastery church was described as a “Fortress of God” and became a sanctuary to those in need. The monasteries offered the best education and became hospitals for the hurt and ill. The monastery churches served as religious shrines for saints and people made pilgrimages to the churches from great distances in their hope of salvation. Salvation from hell in the afterlife preoccupied people of all classes. The church was exalted into a significant role, and the need for a grand place to worship followed. The two phenomena that led to this were the pilgrimages and the Crusades. The Crusades were holy wars the Christians waged against the Moslems in an attempt to recover the Holy Land. The Moslems had taken control of it in the seventh century with the increased population following the Islam religion. Architecture: The Romanesque churches were built from stone and the walls were thick with very little light. The ceilings were spanned by a Roman arch, barrel vault, or groin vault and windows used round Roman arches to form the tops. The churches exterior reflects the interior spaces. The interiors are rather plain. The need for better lighting undoubtedly served as incentive for advancing the vaulting techniques. The interiors consist of five major areas; nave, side aisles, narthex, transept, and apse. St. Sernin, Toulouse. France.1080-1120 St Etienne, Caen, France.1067-87 Sculpture: Mostly restricted to architectural decoration around the portal entrances. The sculpture is not concerned with realism or even naturalism, but with expressing dramatic and frightening messages of the Last Judgement and the plight of those who did not repent their sins. People are depicted as pitiful and weak. The figures are distorted to fit the spaces of the typanums and lintels. Typanum of Cathedral of Autun in Burgandy. 1130 Tapestry: Bayeux Tapestry 1073-83 . Describes the invasion of England by William the Conqueror in a continuous narrative. H. 20” x L. 230’ Gothic refers to the art of the 12 th and 13 th centuries. Historians at one time believed that the Goths were responsible for the style that developed and considered it inferior when compared to the earlier Classicism. Now, however, it is understood the style was reflective of the changing needs and times. The significant missions of the monasteries gave way to the growing towns, many of them centered near Paris. The
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ART100%20Study%20Guide%20Exam%203 - ART 100 INTRODUCTION TO...

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