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2/5/2021The Project Gutenberg eBook of Plutarch's Lives, Vol III. by Aubrey Stewart & George Long.244/310of this error, it would only be necessary to intercalate one day in 1461 years.But this is a mistake; for in 1460 years there would be an error of nearly elevendays too much. Ten days were actually dropped between the 4th and 15th ofOctober, 1582, by Gregory XIII., with the sanction of the Council of Trent.A curious mistake was soon made at Rome by the Pontifices who had theregulation of the Kalendar. The rule was to intercalate a day in every fourthyear (quarto quoque anno). Now such expressions are ambiguous in Latin, asis shown by numerous examples. (Savigny, System des heut. Röm. Rechts, iv.329.) The expression might mean that both the year one and the year four wereto be included in the interpretation of this rule; and the Pontifices interpreted itaccordingly. Thus, after intercalating in year one, they intercalated again inyear four, instead of in year five. In the time of Augustus, B.C. 8. the error wascorrected, and the civil year was set right by dropping the three intercalarydays which came next after that year, three being the number of days in excessthat had been intercalated. For the future the rule of Cæsar was correctlyinterpreted. Dion Cassius in expressing the rule as to intercalation uses thephrase, διὰ πέντε ἐτῶν.The subject of Cæsar's reformation is explained in the notes to Dion Cassius(43. c. 26), ed. Reimarus, and in the article Calendar (Dictionary of Greek andRoman Antiquities) by Professor Key.The Romans had a large collection of these writings (libri Sibyllini) whichwere kept in the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus under the care of particularfunctionaries (duumviri sacrorum). On this curious subject the reader will findsufficient information in the Penny Cyclopædia,—art. Sibyl.Dion Cassius (44. c. 8), who tells the story, says that he was seated in thevestibule of the Temple of Venus; and he mentions another excuse that Cæsarhad for not rising.L. Cornelius Balbus was a native of Gades. Pompeius Magnus gave him theRoman citizenship for his services in Spain against Sertorius, which wasconfirmed by a lex passed B.C. 72, in the consulship of Cn. CorneliusLentulus. Probably to show his gratitude to the consul, Balbus assumed theRoman name Cornelius. Balbus is often mentioned in Cicero's correspondence.After Cæsar's death he attached himself to Cæsar Octavianus, and he wasconsul B.C. 40. He left a journal of the events of his own and Cæsar's life. Healso urged Hirtius (Pansa) to write the Eighth Book of the Gallic War (Prefaceaddressed to Balbus), Suetonius, Cæsar, 81.The Lupercalia are described in the Life of Romulus, c. 21. The festival wascelebrated on the 15th of February. It was apparently an old shepherdcelebration; and the name of the deity Lupercus appears to be connected withthe name Lupus (wolf), the nurturer of the twins Romulus and Remus.

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